Samenvatting Class notes - Inleiding Psychologie en Maatschappij: Arbeids- en Organisatiepsychologie

- Inleiding Psychologie en Maatschappij: Arbeids- en Organisatiepsychologie
- dr. M. van den Tooren
- 2015 - 2016
- Tilburg University (Tilburg University, Tilburg)
- Psychologie
228 Flashcards en notities
3 Studenten
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Samenvatting - Class notes - Inleiding Psychologie en Maatschappij: Arbeids- en Organisatiepsychologie

  • 1443477600 Chapter 1: introduction

  • What is W&O Psychology?
    The study of people and their behaviour at work, and of the organizations in which people work; Work Psychologists develop psychological theory and apply the rigour and methods of psychology to issues that are important to businesses and organizations, in order to promote and advance understanding of individual, group and organizational effectiveness at work, and the wel-being and satisfaction of people working in or served by organizations.
  • Hawthorne Effect 
    men wordt productiever wanneer de werknemers of het productieproces onderzocht wordt en dus meer aandacht krijg
  • The emergence of W&O Psychology can be credited to the combination of a number of initially unrelated developments around the turn of the 20th century.

    1. The applications and successes of science were growing, and entering public consciousness
    2. Modern psychology emerged. Galton and Pearson on individual differences heralded the start of the assessment tradition, at the same time IQ tests were in progress.
    3. The nature of work was changing rapidly, brought about by industrialization.

    Collectively, the context was set for Work Psychology, and the people usually credited with initiating the field in the US are Frank and Lillian Gilbreth, and Frederick Taylor
  • Taylorism:
    Lillian Gilbreth aimed to quantify and measure human behavirou in basic, elementary chunks. The purpose was to measure and manage, to quantify what people did in factory settings, and to make it more efficient. This was the fundamental basis of Scientific Management or Taylorism. Named after the entrepreneur and management theorist Frederick Taylor.
  • `Hugo Munsterberg
    A German psychologist who split his academic career between Germany and the US. He is associated with the emergence of Work Psychology in Europe. He published a book called Industrial Efficiency, which set down some of the core ideas of the role of psychology in scientific management.
  • C. S. Myers
    Perhaps the first consultant Work Psychologist, working with the British Expeditionary Force during WW1 on the treatment of shell shock.
  • WW1 was a major catalyst for progress and, after the war, psychologists in both the US and UK exported their new techniques from the military and into industry.
  • The Hawthorn Studies reflected a growing trend to consider worker rights more clearly during the Great Depression in the 1930s.
  • In the UK, Myers, with industrialist Henry Welch, founded the National Institute of Industrial Psychology (NIIP). Much of the work carried out by the NIIP was concerned with worker well-being. The NIIP also conducted work on the importance of skills and temperaments in helping people to find suitable employment.
  • Kurt Lewin
    He moved to the US to continue his seminal works on Field Theory and Action Research in Work Psychology.
  • The British Psychological Society Division of Occupational Psychology (DOP)
    Formed to represent the interests of Work Psychologists in the UK, but has never marched the political influence and impact that the NIIP achieved between 1920 and 1940.
  • Two critical relationships in the moral considerations of business:
    1. The relationship between government and business
    2. The relationship between business and the rest of society
  • Three pertinent areas that frame the societal responsibilities of business (Carroll, 1999)
    - Econonomic: to operate profitably and efficiently, returning value to shareholders
    - Legal: to conform to all aspects of the law, avoiding harmful litigation
    - Ethical: to act in accordance with societal and business moral norms, to promote the overall welfare of society and to avoid doing harm

    Lefkowitz (2008) calls for a change in the values of Work Psychology to ecompass the ideas about how organizations 'ought' to be, according to ideas of CSR. Lefkowitz believes that this would give Work Psychology the broader values of societal responsibilty that a true profession needs.
  • To vigilant areas where Work and Organizational Psychology could indirectly contribute to irresponsible management (Lefkowitz, 2008)
    1. Pro-management bias
    2. Focus on means and not ends

    1. Management can be quite precise in what they require from Work Psychologists, which can lead to a bias for management needs and goals, rather than for employees that may lead to questionable actions, such as assisting management in organizational changes such as downsizing, without questioning the economic justifications.

    2. Work Psychologists rightly tend to take seriously the methods and practices of their work with organizations. However, the consequence is that they may lower their gaze from the long-term ends and outcomes for individuals, organizations and society.
  • Globalization has happened and is happening right now. There is now a near certainty that in the course of your career you will work in another country or with people from another country or culture as part of your job. It is a reality.
  • The ways that organizations develop in different countries are similar to an extent, but culture determines the specifics of that development. Research in Work Psychology has made some important contributions to understanding cultural influences, notably in the areas of motivation, values, leadership, expartriation, management, team-work and diversity.
  • Sustainability is the third global issue that we consider in the book. In some ways the issue of sustainability may be considered an offshoot of CSR in organizations, but we have chosen to consider it as a separate issue. It is the primary focus of growth, followed by social sustainability, and environmental sustainability last.
  • Sustainable development is also often represented as a Venn diagram with three interlocking circles. It includes attention to sustainable growth in three areas:
    1. Economic: developing economies in ways that do not threaten long-term economic wealth
    2. Social: focusing on development that addresses global social issues such as poverty, hunger or inequality
    3. Environmental: developing in ways that allow less environmental resources to be consumed than those that can naturally be replenished
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Laatst toegevoegde flashcards

Team outputs
- Team effectiveness: goal achievement, productivity, managerial praise
- Innovation: Development of new products, services, ways of working
- Inter-team relationships: cooperation with other teams, effectiveness in working with other teams, absence of destructive conflict with other teams
- Team member satisfaction: With... recognition for contribution, responsibility, team member support, influence over decisions, openness, how conflicts are resolved
- attachment: attachment to the team and its members , sense of belonging in the team
Team reflexivity is the extent to which team members collectively reflect upon the team's objectives, strategies and processes, as well as their wider organizaitons and environments, and adapt accordingly.

Stages of solving a problem:
- exploration
- ideation
- selection
- implementation
Creativity and innovation
Levels of team innovation are high when team members expect, approve and practically support attempts to introduce new and improved ways of doing things. Verbal support is most helpful when team members initially propose ideas. Practical support can take the form of e.g. cooperation in the development of ideas.
Team conflicts
Constructive conflict is desirable in teams. Constructive team conflict can be a source of excellence, quality and creativity. However, high levels of conflict in teams makes team members uncomfortble, anxious and angry. Team performance is then badly damaged. You can:
- avoid the conflict
- accommodate the other person
- compete
- compromise
- collaborate (!)
Error management
Team members and leaders can respond to an error by seeking who to blame or by asking 'waht can we learn from this?'. Learning and innovation will only take place where group members trust other members' intentions.
Constructive controversy
The conditions necessary for effective questioning within a team. When teams explore opposing opinions carefully and discuss them in a co-operative context, quality of decision-making and team effectiveness is dramatically increased.

1. Elaborating positions
2. searching for understanding
3. integrating perspectives
Team processes
Team objectives:
Clarifying the objectives of the team and ensuring that team members are both committed to these objectives and agree with them. The team should focus and prioritize and, given the limitations of human short-term memory, six or seven is a suitable maximum.

Interacting, Information sharing (face-to-face), Influencing decision-making.

Influencing decision-making:
- hidden profile phenomenon: ignoring new information since it is not information they all already share
- Social conformity effects: people tending to go along with the majority
- Air time: The loudest members of a team only speak up
- Status and hierarchy effects: some members' contributions can be valued disproportionately
- Group polarization: the tendency of work teams to make more extreme decisions than the average of individual members' opinions or decision.
- Group think: tightly-knit groups may err in their decision-making because they are more conderned with achieving agreement
- Social loafing
- Brainstorming: quantity and often creativity of ideas produced by individuals working separatly, are consistently superior to those produced together
basisvoorwaarden effectief teamwerk:
- Team composition
Teams are there to do a job and the first and overriding principle is ensuring that all the skills needed for accomplishing the team task are either held by one or more team members or can quickly be developed by them (needed KSAOs).
Homogeneteit vs diversiteit:
- information/decision-making perspective: diversity is an informational resource, offers the prospect of better problem-solving, decision quality, creativity and innovation)
- social categorization perspective: diversity creates intergroup bias; less liking for, trust in and cooperation with dissimilar others, creates conflict etc.)
The leader plays a vital role in encouraging the development of positive beliefs about diversity in the team.

- team size6 - 8 team members

- teamwork KSAOs(SLIDES) Wenselijkheid, sociale vaardigheden, collaboratie, betrokkenheid, geduld en tolerantie.

Generic teamwork skills include social skills such as:
(interpersonal team member KSAs)
- active listening skills
- communication skills
- social perceptiveness
- self monitoring
- altruism
- warmth and cooperation
- patience and tolerance

(self-management team KSAs)
- goal setting and performance management
- planning and task coordination

- organisatiecultuur (vertrouwen, communicatie, betrokkenheid, participatie, support for training, support for teamworking)

- organisatiestructuur (horizontale en verticale lagen)

- beloningssysteem (o.b.v. team vs. individuele prestatie) (voordelen: eensgezind, minder competitie; nadelen: negatief sorteringseffect, social loafing)
Key criticisms of IPO model approach
1. simplifying too far the complex processes of teamwork. The model does not incorporate a feedback loop from outputs to inputs and processes, but clearly learning and change are consequences of performance and other outcomes
(outputs ---> inputs & outputs ---> processes)

2. ignores the long-term development of the team
Input-Process-Output (IPO) model
It shows the relationships between team inputs and outputs. It also proposes that team processes mediate input-output relationships - team inputs affect team processes and thereby have an effect on outputs.

Inputs ---> processes ---> outputs
Inputs ---> outputs

1. task design (complete task, autonomy, task relevance, feedback, interdependence)
2. team effort and skills (team member motivation and effort, appropriateness of team members' skills to the task in hand, team potency - team members' belief in success)
3. organizational support (information and communication, training for teamworking, climate in support of teamworking)
4. resources (material and human resources)

5. objectives
6. reflexivtiy
7. participation
8. task focus
9. team conflict
10. creativity and innovation
11. leadership processes

12. team effectiveness
13. team innovation
14. inter-team relationships
15. team member satisfaction
16. attachment