Samenvatting Class notes - Learning & Memory

- Learning & Memory
- Jaap Murre
- 2019 - 2020
- Universiteit van Amsterdam
- Psychologie
215 Flashcards en notities
1 Studenten
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Samenvatting - Class notes - Learning & Memory

  • 1575327600 Lecture 1: Intro & Neurobiology

  • Long term memory is devided in? (2)
    - Explicit/Declarative memory
    - Implicit / Nondeclarative memory
  • Explicit memory id divided in? (2)
    - Episodic memory: Events: personal experiences in time/place
    -  Semantic memory: Facts: World/object/language knowlegde & conceptual priming
  • Implicit memory is divided in? (4)
    - Procedural memory: Motor & Cognitive skills
    - Perceptual representation system: Perceptual priming
    - Classical conditioning: Conditioned responses between 2 stimuli
    - Nonassosciative learning: Habituation sensitization
  • What is the method of loci?
    - Giving things you need to remember a place on a path and following that path to remember them
  • Important ancient times philosopher?
    - Aristotle: Assosciations between stimuli
  • What did Charles Darwin show regarding learning?
    Evolutionary importance of responding to the environment
  • What did Hermann Ebbinghaus do?
    Founder of modern memory psychology.
    Studied himself.
    Learning 1228 different lists of 13 meaningless syllables
  • What is the Ebbinghaus forgetting curve? What stands out?
    Curve showing the retention of information.
    9 hours after learned vs 1 day after learned: No difference (because of sleep)

    Ebbinghaus thought he made a mistake but he didnt
  • What is Jost's Law?
    If 2 memory traces have equal retrieval probability but different ages. The older one will:
    - Be forgotten more slowly than the younger one
    - Benefit more from additional learning
  • What did Francis Bartlett show?
    Memory is a construction (Gestalt)
    - Memories are complemented by known information.

    Memorise plate that is only half in the picture --> People memorise entire plate
  • What did William James show? (2)
    - Primary & Secondary memory
    - Tip of the Tongue phenomenon
  • What did Sigmund Freud show? (3)
    - Emphasis on unconscious processes
    - Repression as a mechanism for forgetting (role of emotion)
    - Slip of the tongue phenomenon
  • What did Lasly show in neurobiology?
    More percentage of isocortex destroyed --> More mistakes of mouse in maze
  • What d id O. Hebb show? (2)
    Cells that fire together wire together
    Hebbian learning: Neural networks
  • Who are the 3 behaviorists and what are they known for?
    Pavlov: Classical conditioning
    Watson: Fear conditioning (little albert)
    Skinner: Operant conditioning (Skinner box)
  • What is Miller's Law?
    You can recall up to 7 things
  • Er zijn modellen die je moet leren
    Broadbent's information model
    Atkinson & Shiffrin Model
    Baddeley & Hitch model
  • What did Tulving show?
    Difference in Episodic, Semantic & procedural memory
  • Laatste slide van eerste PP model
    Staat er leuk
  • Spines over time:
    Shrink & grow (seemingly randomly and ALOT) --> New connections can be made
  • Hippocampus encodes:
    - Essential for formation of Episodic memory
    - Specialized in spatial memory

    Spatial memory research:  - John o'Keefe: Place cells --> Active when rat in certain location

    - Moser & Moser: Grid cells --> Fire when rat passes certain locations (hexagonal grid)
  • What is the difference between Place cells & Grid cells?
    - Place cells: active when rat is in certain location
    - Grid cells: Active when rate passes certain locations (hexagonal grid)
  • What does the Morris Water Maze show?
    - Variable starting position: Hippocampus lesions doesn't improve

    - Constant starting position: Hippocampus improves (slower than normal)

    Idea: Hippocampus not specialized in spatial memory --> Hippocampus plays a role in remembering complex assosciations
  • What area is needed for a Delayed non-matching to sample Task?
    Parahippocampal area's: Essential for formation of complex assosciations between objects & their context
  • What do parahippocampal area's encode?
    - Formation of complex assosciations between objects & context 
    -  Episodic memory
  • Where is the feeling of familiarity encoded?
    Perirhinal cortex
  • What area's encode declarative/explicit memory?
    - Medial Temporal lobe 
    - Neo cortex
  • What does the model of hippocampus-cortex interaction during consolidation show?
    - Hippocampus is a link system: Links information that is needed
    - Neocortex is a trace system: Only closeby nodes can be activated
  • Why do we make a distinction between episodic & semantic memory?
    - Semantic dementia vs Alzheimer dementia
    - Different parts are inolved
  • What part of the brain encodes implicit procuderal skills & habits?
  • What parts encode implicit priming?
  • What part of the brain encodes simple classical conditioning?
  • What parts encode nonassosciative learning?
    Reflex pathways
  • Why do we make a distinction between explicit vs implicit memory?
    - Anterograde amnesia patients have implicit memory but lack explicit memory (Teach them to play piano) they can't remember but can play
    - Different parts of the brain are involved
  • What was Bartlett's insight?
    Prior knowlegde influences memory (Schemata's)
  • What did Tolman show?
    Ratten kunnen naar iets toe zwemmen (Mental map consulting)
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