Samenvatting Class notes - Motivation

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- Motivation
- 2021 - 2022
- Universiteit van Amsterdam
- Psychologie
226 Flashcards en notities
2 Studenten
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Samenvatting - Class notes - Motivation

  • 1612134000 lecture 1

  • What is motivation?
    • Latin: movere- to move 
    • its about behavior - broadly speakin 
    • What kind of behavior?
      • Approach behavior 
      • Avoidance behavior 
    • Avoidance leads to approach behavior, 
  • Passive avoidance
    Freeze, do nothiing. Inhibition.
  • What causes motivation?

    • Positive outcomes (rewards) 
    • Negative outcomes (straf)  
  • The intensity of motivation
    • Incentive value + needs 
    • Difficulty of the behavior, detemines how strongly we are motivated. 


    Needs and attractieve
  • Intrinsic motivation, intrinsieke motivatie
    Doing something out of interest or pleasure
  • When positive outcomes are delayed or uncertain:
    2 gedachten;
    - Give up!
    - Go on!    
    Soms is het beter om op te geven, maar dit zit niet in onze cultuur.
  • Motivation definition
    Motivation can be defined as the processes that give 1) direction, 2) energy, and 3) persistance to human behavior
  • 2 routes to study motivation
    • Question 1: What do people stive for?
    • Question 2: How do people strive?
    • Approach: create lists or classifications of sufficient or necessary motives. Create a hierarchy of motives. 
  • Maslow's hierarchy of needs. 
    This theory is outdated. 
    Hierarchie is te strikt. 
    Het is een hele strikte theorie. Er zijn bijv mensen die honger kunnen onderdrukken, en toch vrienden kunnen hebben. Studies laten zien dat soldaten geen watjes willen zijn en daarom het 'vuur' in lopen. Hun reputatie staat dus hoger dan leven.
  • Theory of planned behavior.
    • Behavioral attitude
    • Subjective norms
    • Perceived behavioral control 
  • Route 2 to study motivation
    Question: How do people strive?
    Approach: To find general principles that apply to all motives.
  • Mindset theory of action phases.
    Wat gebeurd er tijdens het maken van een beslissing?
    'How' theory.

     
  • How to observe or manipluate the context
    • Presence of positive (negative) outcomes 
    • Level of task difficulty 
    • Need state 
    • Level of awareness
    • Personality measures 
    • Social context 
    • Neurophysiological state 
  • Expressions of motivation (dependent variable). (BBEPS) 
    • Behavior
    • Brain Activations
    • Engagement
    • Psychophysiology
    • Self-report
  • Argument #3, ideas about motivation are dangerous.
  • Motivation: whats new about it
    • Classical antiquity:
      • Hedonism: We strive for pleasure and avoid pain
      • Stoicism: "virtue is the only good"
      • Aristotle: a rational soul controls the vegetative soul and the sensitive soul. 
    • Medieval Christianity: an immortal soul with a free will transcends our animal-like bodies. 

    (Augustine of Hippo)
  • Hedonism
    We strive for pleasure and avoid pain
  • Stoicism
    "virue is the only good"
  • Aristotles
    A rational soul controls the vegetative soul and the sensitive soul
  • At the dawn of modern age  (following Copernicus, Galileo, Newton)
    • Dualism between mechanical, reactive body versus spiritual, immaterial (but active) soul with a purposive will. Rene descartes.
      • Insight 1: We can study the body as we study the rest of nature.
      • Insight 2: The will is the ultimate motivational force.  
    Rene Descartes: ziel en lichaam gescheiden
  • Beyond descartes: Materialism, Empiricism, Kantianism
    • French materialism: It's all about chemical and physical reactions to stimuli: "man the machine!"
    • British empiricism: the human psyche starts as a blank slate and learns with experience (of pleasure and pain)
    • German kantianism: a willful self controls our actions in line with moral principles.
  • Instinct
    • Inherited instincts become impulses for action when appropriate stimuli are encountered.
    • But how many instrincts are there?
    • And how to explain the flexibility of behavior?
    • Darwin: instincts, automatisch programma.
      • Charles Darwin 
      • Alfred Wallace 
      • William James 
  • Drive theory
    • An innate energizing force (similar to instrint)
    • Response to deprivation of biological needs
    • Invigorates rather is reinforcing, aanleiding tot gedrag. 
    • Learned stimulus-reponse patterns, direct behavior.
    • Clark Hull: E = H x D (strength off behavior = habit x Drive) x K (extrnal stimuli) 


    Problem: behavior and learning also occurs when no need is deprived.
  • Post-drive theories
    Incentive theory; extranal events or stimuli energize and direct approach and avoidance behavior.
  • Arousal theory
    Environmental stimulation of alertness, wakefulness & activation. Moderate arousal levels are preferred.
  • Neurocognitive revolution
    • Grand theories of motivation all failed (too many findings remained unexplained and core assumptions were falsified) 
    • Rise of the computer metaphor for the human mind: the brain as an information processing device.
  • Motivation at the crossroad:
    • In exile (1960-present)
      • Inspired by humanistic ideas: people are oriented towards exploration and growth
      • Focus on intrinsic motivation, health, well-being
      • Applied focus in clinical, work, educational and pedagogical psychology
    • Join the revolution
      • Develop a cognitive approach to motivation: plans, goals, expectations, beliefd, attributions, schemas
    > Development of many independent mini-theories of motivation
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Laatst toegevoegde flashcards

Habits
Can be defined as "memory-based propensities to respond automatically to specific cues, which are acquired by the repetition of cue-specific behaviors in stable contexts
  • Habits are cognitive structues, not the act itself 
  • Automaticity: habits characterized by 
    • Lack of awareness 
    • Lack of intentionality 
    • Mental efficiency 
    • Difficulty to control or stop 
  • Habits develop through repeated reward learning and then become insensitive to reward outcomes. 
Purposive emotions
Emotions are motivational states aimed at triggering appropriate behaviors (anger > to remove abstacle. (high control perception)
Emotions
Short-lives, multidimensional, and synchronized responses that help to adapt to the affordances of critical life events. 
  1. subjective experience
  2. Bodily response 
  3. Purposive 
  4. Expressive  
The law of less work: The resource conservation principle:
If two or more behavioral sequences, each involving a different amount of energy consumption or work, have been equally well reinforced and equal number of times, the organism will gradually learn to choose the less laborious behavior sequence leading to the attainment of the reinforcing state of affairs. 

Actions will be selected so as to minimize effort or work.
Intrinsic motivation
Doing something out of interest or pleasure
Hedonic
Ancient Greek for pleasure (in turn derived from the Greek word for sweet)
Arousal theory
Environmental stimulation of alertness, wakefulness & activation. Moderate arousal levels are preferred.
Post-drive theories
Incentive theory; extranal events or stimuli energize and direct approach and avoidance behavior.
Aristotles
A rational soul controls the vegetative soul and the sensitive soul
Stoicism
"virue is the only good"