Samenvatting Class notes - Neurosciences

Vak
- Neurosciences
- Jan van Weering
- 2019 - 2020
- Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
- Biomedical sciences
361 Flashcards en notities
2 Studenten
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Samenvatting - Class notes - Neurosciences

  • 1572303600 1. Neuroanatomy (1)

  • What is considered as the central nervous system?
    The brain and spinal cord
  • What does belong to the peripheral nervous system?
    The nerves that go to the different muscles and joints. Also the cranial and spinal nerves belong to the peripheral nervous system.
  • What is sensory input?
    All the input from your body and surroundings (internal and external). Surroundings is information from your vision and auditory system.
  • What is the cauda equina?
    Below L2, the point where the spinal cord stops. You have all kind of nerve endings here but not from the spinal cord.
  • What are the two bays the brain is protected?
    The skull and meninges.
  • What is the falx cerebri?
    The falx cerebri is the division between the left and right hemisphere.
  • What is the tentorium cerebelli?
    The rooftop on top of the cerebellum. The division between the cerebellum and the occipital lobe.
  • What are the names of the three layers of meninge?
    Dura mater, arachnoid, pia mater
  • What is the dura mater?
    The outer layer of the meninges. It consists of more than one layer. The outer layer sticks to the skull and the inner layer actually folds in between the hemispheres.
  • What is the arachnoid?
    The arachnoid is a layer on top of the brain but underneath the blood vessels. It is the middle meringe. Within the arachnoid you have a space (subarachnoid space) in which the cerebral arteries and veins are located.
  • What is the pia mater?
    The pia mater is the layer that is closest to the brain. It is very thin and consists of only one layer of cells. It follows the brain completely.
  • What is the foramen magnum?
    The opening in the skull where the spinal cord goes through and continues in the back.
  • What is the central sulcus?
    The border between the frontal and parietal cortex.
  • Where do you find the premotor cortex? What does it do?
    The precentral gyrus. It initiates movement.
  • What is the postcentral gyrus? What is it involved in?
    The postcentral gyrus is just posterior to the central sulcus. This is involved in the where am I, what do I see part.
  • What is Broca's area? Where is it located?
    Broca's area is located in the frontal inferior gyrus. It is involved in physically speaking, motor control of speech.
  • What is Wernicke's area? Where is it located?
    Wernicke's area is for understanding of speech. It is located in the posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus.
  • What is the corpus callosum?
    The connection between the left and right hemisphere.
  • What is the insula?
    A fifth lobe, located behind the lateral (Sylvian) fissure. It is one of the oldest lobes (one of the first areas formed during brain development). It is important in the sensation of pain and awareness, where am I?
  • Where is the fourth ventricle located?
    In the brain stem
  • What is the parieto-occipital sulcus?
    The border between the parietal and occipital lobe.
  • What did Brodmann use to distinguish different areas?
    Brodmann used differences in layer density, structure.
  • What are the different parts of the spinal cord?
    Top part, cervical part, thoracic part, lumbar part and sacral part.
  • What is the difference between spinal roots and ganglia?
    Spinal roots are the extensions of the spinal cord. At the end of these roots there are ganglia.
  • What is the big difference between the brain and the spinal cord?
    The brain has grey matter on the outside and white matter on the inside while the spinal cord has white matter on the outside and grey matter on the inside.
  • When is the main part of development of neurons during embryonic development?
    The first 23 weeks
  • What are the major divisions in the brain during embryonic development?
    Prosencephalon - mesencephalon - rhombencephalon - spinal cord
  • What does the prosencephalon become?
    Telencephalon and diencephalon
  • After a child is born there are still stem cells somewhere in the brain. Where are these and what is the result?
    There are still stem cells in the cerebellum. This is why children still need to develop motor control (motor control is controlled by the cerebellum).
  • What is the plexus choroidius?
    A very small structure in the lateral ventricle that makes the spinal fluid. It is capillaries with small endothelial borders which filter CSF out of the blood.
  • What is the hypothalamus important for?
    Controlling hormones
  • What is the thalamus important for?
    Input of cortical structures
  • What is the function of substantia nigra?
    Production of dopamine.
  • What is the aqueduct?
    The connection between the third and fourth ventricle.
  • What are the pontine arteries?
    Branches of the basal artery
  • What does the circle of Willis connect?
    The internal carotid artery and the basal artery.
  • What are the connections of the circle of Willis called?
    The communicating arteries
  • What part of the brain does the cerebri anterior supply with blood?
    The medial site of the human brain.
  • What part of the brain does the cerebri media supply with blood?
    The lateral part of the brain
  • What part of the brain does the cerebri posterior supply with blood?
    The occipital and temporal cortex
  • What is the striatum?
    The putamen and the caudate nucleus together.
  • What are the lenticulostriate arteries?
    The arteries that branch off from the middle cerebral artery stem (MI). These arteries go to the striatum.
  • What is hydrocephalus?
    Hydrocephalus means that the CSF cannot leave through the cerebral aqueduct and it accumulates in the brain.
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Laatst toegevoegde flashcards

What is the anterolateral pathway? Where does it cross?
It is the ascending tract of vital information (pain & temperature). It crosses to the contralateral side at the spinal cord.
What is the dorsal columns-lemniscus medialis system? Where does this system cross?
The ascending tract of gnostic (propriocepsis and touch) information. It crosses at the caudal medulla.
What is the lateral corticospinal tract?
The descending tract containing motor information.
What are the structures of the limbic system?
  • Amygdala
  • Hippocampus
  • Cingulate cortex
  • Fornix   
What is surrounding the hippocampus?
Lateral ventricle
What is the difference between the dorsal and ventral pathway of vision?
V5 is the dorsal pathway, goes to parietal lobe to get visual spatial input (where)
V4 is the ventral pathway, goes to the temporal lobe, what am I looking at.
What is the stria of Gennari?
The extra layer within layer 4, layer 4B.
What are the borders of the visual cortex?
Parieto-occipital fissure & pre-occipital insure.
If the optic tract on the right side is damaged, what happens?
Left you lose nasal information (temporal field) and right you lose temporal information (nasal field).
What happens if there is a lesion in the optic chiasm?
Crossing is lost so nasal information from both eyes is lost (temporal field is lost).