Samenvatting Class notes - Nutritional Neurosciences

Vak
- Nutritional Neurosciences
- Paul Smeets
- 2020 - 2021
- Wageningen University (Wageningen University, Wageningen)
- Voeding en Gezondheid
107 Flashcards en notities
1 Studenten
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Samenvatting - Class notes - Nutritional Neurosciences

  • 1609714800 L1+L2

    • Food is necessary for survival 
    • Food is a primary reward
    • Food digestion/absorption is a homeostatic challenge!
    • A primary brain function is maintaining homeostasis
    • The brain strives to automate responses & minimise cognitive 'interference' 
  • You eat with your brain
  • Where is the human nervous system build off?
    • Central nervous system 
    • Brain 
    • Spinal cord
    • Peripheral nervous system 
    • Peripheral nerve
  • Name the 8 blood vessels in the brain
    • Common carotid
    • External carotid
    • Internal carotid
    • Vertebral 
    • Basilar
    • Posterior cerebral 
    • Middel cerebral 
    • Anterior cerebral 
  • Besides the 8 blood vessels in the brain you also have the circle of Willis, what is this?
    It is a kind of roundabout. All the blood goes via this...? If there is a blockade somewhere the circle of willis can still provide blood to go to the region. 

    green part in the picture ...?
  • Blood brings 3 things to the brain:
    • Glucose
    • Oxygen
    • Hormones / signalling molecules


    (antibodies/co2)
  • The brain exists of three things
    • Forebrain 
    • Brainstem 
    • Cerebellum 
  • The brainstem consists of:
    • Midbrain 
    • Pons
    • Medulla 
  • What are the brain stem functions?
    • Reward processing 
    • Processing gut signals 
    • Control of heart and breathing rate 


    (Motor control NIET)
  • Brainstem 


    • Receives/processes multiple GI signals 


    • Midbrain:
      • Autonomic functions 
      • Substantia nigra & VTA contain dopamine neurons ->reward circuit
  • What are the functions of the Cerebellum (small brain)
    • Motor control:
      • classis - well established
    • Cognitive functions:
      • Mounting evidence (=steeds meer bewijs)
    • Feeding control:
      • Mounting evidence (=steeds meer bewijs)


    May link somatic and visceral systems. Under investigation....
  • The forebrain consists of (is divided in):
    • Cerebral cortex
    • Basal ganglia
    • Diencephalon
  • One part of the forebrain is the cerebral cortex. The cerebral cortex is divided in:
    Two hemispheres
    • 4-5 lobes
      • Frontal lobe
      • Parietal lobe
      • Temporal lobe
      • Occipital lobe
      • Limbic 'lobe' / limbic system 
    • connected by the corpus callosum
  • Why is the white matter white?
    Because of myelin 

    White inside, gay outside
  • One part of the forebrain is diencephalon, in which two parts is diencephalon divided?
    • Thalamus 
    • Hypothalamus 
  • What are the terms to navigate the brain?
    • Medial: near the midline
    • Middle
    • Lateral: near the outer edge


    • Dorsal = superior
    • Ventral = interior 
  • Where is this blob located?
    Ventromedial
  • There are three ways to slice the brain
    • Transverse = axial 
    • Coronal 
    • Sagittal 
  • Two ways to view the brain
    • Radiological (R=L): upward from the feet 
    • Neurological (R=R): downward from the head ("brain surgeon view")
  • Hoe kan je er zeker van zijn dat je weet welke kant links en welke kant rechts is van het brein
    Door het toevoegen van een marker
  • In what kind of ways is there brain nomenclature options
    • Brodmann areas
    • Anatomical label 
    • Anatomical location 
    • Functional name 
    • (Cytoarchitectonic name)
  • Brain atlases - 'standard space'

    • Common reference 
    • Needed for 'pooling' brains in group analyses 
      • 'normalization' = warping 
  • Talairach space
    • Founder: Jean Talairach
    • Based on the brain of one 60-y old French woman
    • Talairach & Tournoux atlases


    • 3D; stereotaxic coordinate system
    • Origin at Anterior Commissure (=midsagittal), Ac-PC line is the y-axis, should be horizontal


    Nadeel: gebaseerd op 1 brein 
  • MNI space
    • Montreal Neurological Institute space: MNI space
      • Roughly equivalent to Talairach space, same origin 
      • Brain templates based on average anatomical MRI's of healthy right-handed volunteers acquired by the International Consortium for Brain Mapping (ICBM; n=305 / 152 / 452)
  • What are the notes on atlases
    • Very useful, but:
    • There is great inter individual aeration in
      • Sulci and gerij: every cortex is unique
      • Size of ventricles
    • Affected by many factors
    • --> Group-specific (MNI) templates
    • --> Probability atlases
  • Gender differences in brain morphology and function can be substantial!
  • What are the gender differences
    • Greatest effects in regions affected by sex hormones during brain development 
    • Several fMRI studies show effect of menstrual cycle/sex hormones on food reward responses
  • Diet has also effect on the brain
  • What is the biggest lobe? And wat are the functions of this lobe?
    Frontal lobe

    • Stimulus evaluation, decision making
    • Controlling movement - planning behaviour
  • What are the relevant subparts of the frontal lobe?
    • Orbitofrontal cortex 
    • Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
    • Medial prefrontal cortex 
  • Which lobe is next to the frontal lobe? And what are its functions
    Parietal lobe

    • Somatosensory processing
    • Controls 'bodily sensations'
    • Visual processing (dorsal stream = 'where')
  • Where is the temporal lobe located? And what are its functions
    • Auditory processing 
    • Visual processing (ventral stream = 'what')
    • Hippocampus (limbic area)
  • Where is the occipital lobe located? And what are its function(s)
    Visual processing
  • Where is the insula located?
    • Insular cortex (insula = island)
    • Hidden in the lateral sulcus
    • Concealed by parts of frontal, parietal & temporal lobes
    • Operculum = 'lid' e.g. Frontal operculum
  • What are the functions of the insula
    • 'limbis' area, emotion, interception, homeostasis
    • anterior insula: olfactory, gustatory and limbic function; subjective feelings
    • posterior insula: perception of bodily sensations, e.g. Pain, visceral sensations, gastric distension
    • key connecting area. Connects with S2, amygdala, prefrontal cortex, ...
  • What is the '5th lobe' ? And what are its functions
    Limbic system 

    • Subcortical 
    • Emotion, learning, motivation, autonomic functions
    • Key players: amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus


    • other/associated areas include
      • Basal ganglia ('reward')
      • Orbitofrontal cortex
      • Piriform cortex (smell)
  • Which limbic brain structure is this?
    Hippocampus
  • What are the functions of the hippocampus and there is it located
    • Hippocampus = 'sea horse'
    • Location: medial temporal lobe 
    • Formation of memories
    • Forming associations; (dietary) learning
    • Spatial navigation 
  • What are the functions of amygdala and where are they located?
    • 'almond'
    • controls autonomic, emotional and sexual behaviour 
    • Fear, arousal - emotion (unpleasant as well as pleasant)
    • Couples learned cues to adaptive response 
    • Valence (relevance); e.g. Hunger modulates Am response to food stimuli 
  • What is the location of the basal ganglia and what are its functions
    • Motor control!
    • Reward processing - approach/avoidance
    • Striatum = putamen + pallidum + caudate
      • Dorsal striatum
      • Ventral striatum
        • nucleus accumens --> 'hedonic hotspot'
  • Where is the Thalamus located
    Sensory relay
  • Where is the hypothalamus located and what are its functions?
    • Homeastasis!
    • Integration with hormones
    • Energy intake regulation 
      • Hunger
    • Thirst
    • Much more; stress, slee, ...
  • 5 characteristics of the hypothalamus
    • Integration of neural and hormonal signals 
    • Sensitive to glucose
    • Sensitive to blood-borne hormones e.g.: insulin, leptin, gherkin, PYY, CCK, GLP-1
    • Multiple neuropeptides e.g.: NPY, AgRP/POMC, alfaMSH
    • Implicated in energy intake regulation; hunger (lat), satiety (vm)
  • Spinal cord consists of ...
    • Cranial nerves - ascending and descending white matter tracts 
    • (dorsal horn) - sensory and interneurons
    • (ventral horn) - motor neurons that project to muscles
  • How many cranial nerves are there?
    • 12 cranial nerves 
    • Receptor cells --> sensors, 'senses'
    • Autonomic & somatic part 


    1. Olfactory 
    2. optic
    3. oculomotor
    4. trochlear
    5. trigeminal 
    6. abducens
    7. facial
    8. auditory 
    9. glossopharyngeal
    10. vagus
    11. spinal accessory 
    12. hypoglossal 
  • Where does the autonomic nervous system contains of?
    • Parasympathetic
      • Rest & digest/maintenance
      • Acetylcholine
    • Sympathetic
      • Action (fight/flight/freeze)
      • Norepinephrine (=noradrenaline)
    • Enteric nervous system 
  • Peripheral nervous sytem -->
    • Sensory perception, nutrient sensing --> cephalic phase responses
    • Most relevant nerves: 'sensory' nerves in the head and the vagus nerve (X)
  • What is needed for vision?
    • Cranial nerve II
    • Thalamic nuclei 
    • Primary & secondary visual cortex in occipital & temporal/parietal lobe 
    • Visual processing e.g. Attention is modulated by frontal cortex; top-down control
  • Which regions will get active when looking at food?
    • Visual cortex
    • Posterior insula
    • Amygdala
    • Orbitofrontal cortex 


    Modulators:
    • Hunger
    • BMI
    • Attention 
  • How is the olfaction registered?
    • Olfactory nerve (CN I)
    • Olfactory bulb --> tract
    • Piriform cortex
    • Orbitofrontal cortex (insula, amygdala, hippocampus, striatum, thalamus, thupthalamus 


    Geur gaat direct de hersenen in en komt niet via de thalamus eerst 
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Laatst toegevoegde flashcards

What can you do with fMRI?
  • Localisation of function --> Where?
  • Function/process --> Multiple regions, response pattern
  • Changes over time --> Repeated measurements
  • Intervention effects --> Food/drug/training effects 
  • Functional connectivity --> Network analysis (tast or resting state)
What are the con's of fMRI?
  • BOLD signal is an indirect (vascular) measure of neuronal activity 
  • BOLD response (hrs) is slow; low temporal resolution 
  • Task design is crucial and far from 'naturalistic'
  • Scan environment + magnetic field pose restrictions 
  • Relatively expensive + time consuming 


Nevertheless, very popular 
What are the pro's of fMRI?
  • Non-invasive, accessible method to study the 'brain in action' 
  • Repeated measures possible 
  • Can reveal adaptive reorganisation/changes in the brain, not (yet) detectable in behaviour 
  • Can reveal functional connectivity between brain regions 
Where stands BOLD fMRI for
Blood Oxygenation Level-Dependent (BOLD) signal (indirect measure of (change in) neuronal activity)

^ neural activity --> ^ blood oxygen --> ^ fMRI signal 
What is the difference between MRI and functional MRI (fMRI)
MRI studies brain anatomy

Functional MRI (fMRI) studies brain function

BOLD fMRI = Blood oxygenation Level-Dependent (BOLD) signal (indirect measure of (change in) neuronal activity)
Image acquisition =
T1 and T2 are tissue-specific 'relaxation times' of the MRI signal and differences in T1/T2 are used to generate different contrast 

Same anatomy, different contrast. Due to difference in T1/T2 relaxation between fat and water 
The anatomy of an MRI scan
  • Place object in strong static magnetic field, then:
    • Transmit RF pulse; excitation 
    • Wait
    • 'Listen' to PF emission due to relaxation (receive)
    • Wait, then go to 1 again 
  • time between step 1 and 3 is Echo Time (TE)
  • Wait time before step 1 is repeated: Repetition Time (TR)
  • TE and TR influence image contrast differently 
Slice selection gradient =
  • Apply a gradient along the z-axis
  • Larmor frequency differs along the gradient; stronger B0, higher Larmor frequency 
  • RF pulse only energies the part where field strength matches Larmor frequency (=slice)
  • 'Frequency encoding'
Which 3 gradient coils can be made?
z, x and y
Gradient =
Magnetic field slightly stronger at one location compared to another

Gradients 
  • add a gradient pulse to code another direction 
  • 'phase encoding' - changes phase of the spins

Gradient switching - that's what makes all the noise during imaging