Samenvatting Class notes - Oncology

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- Oncology
- Steenbergen
- 2020 - 2020
- Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
- Biomedische Wetenschappen
188 Flashcards en notities
1 Studenten
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Samenvatting - Class notes - Oncology

  • 1585692000 1. Chapter 1

  • From which tissue does a carcinoma arise?
    Epithelia
  • From which tissue does an adenocarcinoma arise?
    Glandular tissues
  • From which tissue does a sarcoma arise?
    Mesodermal tissues (e.g. Bone, muscle)
  • From which tissue does a lymphoma arise?
    (Progenitors of) white blood cells
  • What is the difference between a cytotoxic and cytostatic effect?
    Cytotoxic: prevention of cell division
    Cytostatic: killing of cells
  • What are the three phases of clinical trials?
    Phase I: assessment of safety of a limited number of patients. Also, assessment of pharmacokinetics and metabolism.
    Phase II: assessment of efficacy at a safe dose
    Phase III: extensive trials. Assessment of added value. Comparison with current standard treatment.
  • 1585864800 3. Chapter 2 (2)

  • What is ionizing radiation?
    Radiation which causes ionization of an atom, resulting in emission of an electron. The electron can damage the DNA of cells directly or indirectly via production of ROS.
  • What is the linear energy transfer (LET)?
    The average energy per unit distance deposited by a charged particle. The higher the LET, the more cell kill per Gy.
  • How is radiotherapy used in the clinic?
    As teletherapy (local external beam radiotherapy) or as brachytherapy (bring the radioation inside).
  • What is the radiation carcinogenic process?
    Initiation -> promotion -> progression
  • What is a secondary tumor?
    Radiation-induced tumors after being treated with chemotherapy.
  • What type of DNA damage does ionizing radiation cause? Which cell cycle phase is sensitive?
    • Single strand DNA breaks
    • Double strand DNA breaks
    • Base damage
    The G2/M phase is sensitive
  • What type of DNA damage does non-ionizing radiation cause? Which cell cycle is sensitive?
    Pyrimidine dimers that lead to point mutations.
    The S phase is sensitive.
  • How does UV cause cancer?
    A cytosine is recognized as a thymine, this leads to an A:T instead of a G:C.
  • What is the working mechanism of genotoxic carcinogens?
    Timing: DNA synthesis
    Mechanism: DNA adduct formation
    Effect: DNA adducts disturb the DNA structure and replication
    Result: if not repaired sufficiently there is a carcinogen specific mutation.
  • How can radiation resistance occur?
    • Location of cells in a tumor (for away from blood vessels (=hypoxic) are more likely to be resistant to radiation)
    • Tumor cell heterogeneity
    • 'Acquired' drug resistance
  • 1586124000 5. Chapter 4

  • What type of molecules are most transcription factors?
    Tyrosine kinases
  • Describe the signal transduction pathway of EGF.
    1. EGF binds to its receptor EGFR
    2. Dimerization
    3. Autophosphorylation
    4. The SH2 domain of GRB2 recognizes phosphorylated EGFR
    5. The SH3 domain of GRB2 interacts with the SH3 domain of SOS
    6. SOS activates RAS (GTP is bound)
    7. Raf activation by RAS
    8. Activated Raf phosphorylates mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)
    9. MEK activates MAPK by phosphorylation
    10. MAPK targets the AP-1 transcription factor
  • What is v-sis?
    A growth factor that secretes PDGF (normally a component of wound response). It is an oncogene that can lead to unregulated growth when secreted in the wrong location or with the wrong timing.
  • What is v-erbB?
    A growth factor receptor that looks like EGFR. The extracellular domain is deleted and this causes cells to divide in the absence of EGF.
  • How can ras work as an oncogene?
    If ras cannot go back to the inactive RAS-GDP, there is constitutive activation of the RAS protein.
  • What is v-fos?
    V-fos can lead to an increase in AP-1 and thus AP-1 regulated genes.
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