Samenvatting Class notes - Social Affective Neurosciences

- Social Affective Neurosciences (Felix)
- Timo Stein
- 2019 - 2020
- Universiteit van Amsterdam
- Psychologie
206 Flashcards en notities
1 Studenten
  • Deze samenvatting

  • +380.000 andere samenvattingen

  • Een unieke studietool

  • Een oefentool voor deze samenvatting

  • Studiecoaching met filmpjes

Onthoud sneller, leer beter. Wetenschappelijk bewezen.

PREMIUM samenvattingen zijn gecontroleerd op kwaliteit en speciaal geselecteerd om je leerdoelen nog sneller te kunnen bereiken!

Samenvatting - Class notes - Social Affective Neurosciences

  • 1578265200 Lecture 1 - History of Emotions 1

  • How are emotions different from basic drives?
    Basic drives reflect needs of the body.
    Emotions are responses to external stimuli
  • What are the 7 accepted components of emotions?
    - Response to stimulus
    - Judgement of a stimulus
    - Physiological 
    - Motivation
    - Motor expression
    - Feelings
  • How are emotions different from moods?
    Moods are longer-lasting & less specifically related to external stimuli
  • What are the 2 most important things aristotle said about emotions?
    Affect peoples judgements
    Pain or pleasure with emotions.

    - proper, balanced emotional experience is good or decisions
  • What is the Hedonist view of emotions?
    The only intrinsic good is pleasure.
    - Absence of pain 
    - Take momentary pleasure wherever you can get it
  • What was the view of epicureans on emotion?
    Greatest good is modest pleasure & absence of pain and freedom from distress and worry.
    - Abstincence (self-control)
    - Demonstrating emotional control
  • What is the view of Stoics on emotions?
    Emotions are false judgements.
    - To think clear = to overcome emotions
    - Avoid emotions through: self-discipline, rely on logical thinking
  • What was Herbet Spencer's modern view of emotions?
    Highlighting the links between cognition, emotion & memory
    - Different sides of the same psychical phenomena
    -  No cognition without emotion, no emotion without cognition
  • What are Freud's 3 sides of the Psyche?
    Id: Basic drives
    Ego: Sense of self & mediator
    Superego: Moral (right & wrong)
  • What is emotion formation according to freud & why is it wrong?
    Freud on emotion:
    - Instincts & drives; occur when drive is blocked
    - Emotions as conscious feelings of unconscious desires
    - Repression of emotion can lead to mental illness

    Why its wrong
    - Philosophical and non-falsifiable
  • What did Charles Darwin show about emotions?
    - Physical expression of emotion in humans & animals (most objective measure)

    - Emtions are innate:  Emotional expressions are similar across cultures & species

    - Some emotions in adults still useful tohers not (crying, gaze aversion in shame)
  • What are the big 6 basic facial expressions? (Ekman)
    1. Joy/Happiness
    2. Disgust
    3. Surprise
    4. Sadness
    5. Anger
    6. Fear
  • How was the universality of facial expressions studies (Ekman & Friesen)?
    Papua New Guineans: Isolated tribe
    - No written language
    - No photo's, outsiders, magazines or television

    Let them match face in photograph & tell short emotional stories.
    They were able to express alot of the same emotional of westerners --> Universality
  • What is Emotion-specific stereotyped response?
    Each instance of an emotion has:
    - Same pattern of behavior
    - Same pattern of bodily activation
    - Facial expression
    - same conscious experience?
  • Can emotions be just innate? (universal, same responses etc.)
    Emotional experience & expression varies between situation, people & cultures.

    - Basic theories explain this with modification through learning & development
  • What is the James-Lange bodily theory of emotions?
    Emotions are accompanied by changes in the body.
    - Changes in autonomic nervous system 

    James-Lange: Stimulus --> bodily response --> Feeling

    (Bodily changes influence our sensory cortex)
  • What are problems with the James-Lange theory of emotions?
  • What is Damasio's somatic marker theory?
    Somatic markers: Bodily changes in response to a stimulus (muscle tonus, posture, facial, hormones etc.)

    - Somatic markers transmitted to the brain are transformed into emotions

    - Emotions & somatic markers become associated with stimulus.

    - Emotions can guide adaptive behaviour
    - Loop: Brain can anticipate bodily changes --> No need to wait for actual changes to happen
  • What is Arnold's cognitive appraisal theory?
    1. Stimulus: in situation
    2. Appraisal: Good vs Bad
    3. Emotion: Liking vs Disliking
    4. Action: Approach vs Withdrawal
  • What is the difference between Arnol'ds cognitive Appraisal theory and & basic emotion theories? And the difference with James-Lange theory?
    Arnold: Stimulus --> Appraisal --> Emotion --> Action

    Inconsistent with basic emotion theories: Context can alter which emotion is experienced     

    Inconsistent with James: Emotions are not the perception of bodily changes but depend on interpretation of situation
  • What is misattribution of arousal?
    Physiological arousal related to fear can be mislabeled as romantic arousal

    (Woman in distress)
  • What is Schacter & Singers 2-factor theory of the makeup of emotions?
    Stimulus --> Bodily response --> Appraisal --> Feeling

    Emotion is based on both bodily sensation & cognitive appraisal:

    - Perception of bodily arousal = intensity of emotion
    - Cognitive appraisal of situation = type of emotion

    Emotions as interpretation of bodily arousal is based on situational cues:- Unexpected/unexplained arousal will be explained by situational cues
    - If the arousal can be explained (Adrenaline shot), cues will not be used

    (In line with misattribution of arousal)
  • How did Schacter & Singer test their 2-factor theory of emotions?
    Epinephrine shot with informed vs uninformed group.

    - Angry confederate: Not angry --> Arousal = shot
    - Euphoric confederate: Not happy --> Arousal = shot

    Uninformed (Misattribution)
    - Angry confederate: Angry --> Cue to explain arousal
    - Euphoric confederate: Happy --> cue to explain arousal
  • What is Lazarus's stress model? (which appraisal component lead to emotion & stress?)
    Primairy appraisal
    - Motivational relevance: Importance of situation
    - Motivational congruence: Desirability of situation

    Secondary appraisal (Evaluation of own recources & coping options)
    - Problem-focused coping = change situation
    - Emotion-focused coping = adjust to situation
Lees volledige samenvatting
Deze samenvatting. +380.000 andere samenvattingen. Een unieke studietool. Een oefentool voor deze samenvatting. Studiecoaching met filmpjes.

Laatst toegevoegde flashcards

The mPFC is involved in theory of mind. When is there more activity?
More activity when:
- Thinking about people vs objects
- Mentalizing (minds) vs non-mentalyzing (physical) judgements
- Playing game vs other person than vs  computer
The temporal poles are activated in semantic memory. For what concepts is it activated more?
Social concepts vs non-social concepts
- Involved in theory of mind
What tasks besides Sally-Anne task measure theory of mind?
RMET: Reading the mind in the eyes
Inferences about mental states based on media (stories, cartoon, interactive games etc.)
What are neural correlates of Theory of Mind?
- Temporal poles
- mPFC
- Tempero-parietal junction (TPJ)
Is empathy research trustworthy?
Nee, Tania Singer is een psychopathische liegende bitch.
Is empathy for pain fully automatic?
No, beliefs can influence simulation mechanisms.
- Fair/unfair actors receiving shocks

- Less activity in fronto-insular cortex when unfair player gets pain   
- Activate reward/pleasure circuits seeing unfair players im pain
What evidence for empathy of pain is supported now?
Simulation, not motor.

- Empathy for pain is mediated by simulating pain, not by simulating motor behaviour
- No mirror system activity
- Simulation without motor representations as a linking step
What is remarkable about the empathy for pain research using couples in fMRI?
It's fake as fuck --> Voodoo correlations
What is emotion according to perspective taking & how do you measure it according to perspective taking?
-  Imagining how I would feel/react in situation
- Imagining how other person would feel/react in that situation

 Measurement: Questionaire subscales
What is emotional empathy & what are it's measures?
Definition: Having emotional reaction to someone else's situation, although it doesn't have to be the same emotion.

Measurement: Questionaire subscales