Samenvatting Class notes - Systems Engineering

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Samenvatting - Class notes - Systems Engineering

  • 1461016800 Systems Engineering V1

  • Chart: action Field of Product Creation:
  • Systems Engineering is an interdisciplinary approach and means to enable the realization of successful systems. It focuses on defining customer needs and required functionality early in the development cycle, documenting requirements, then proceeding with design synthesis and system validation while considering the complete problem. (INCOSE)

    Systems engineering is a methodical, disciplined approach for the design, realization, technical management, operations, and retirement of a system. (NASA-Handbook)

    Systems engineering consists of two significant disciplines: the technical knowledge domain in which the systems engineer operates, and systems engineering management.(Department of Defence)
  • Summary: SE is an interdisciplinary and holistic method to develop systems while considering all aspects of its life-cycle.
  • What is a System?

    Oxford Dictionaries: A set of connected things or parts forming a complex whole, in particular

    James N. Martin: System means a set of integrated end products and their enabling products.

    Benjamin S. Blanchard: An aggregation or assemblage of objects united by some form of regular interaction or independence 
    INCOSE: A combination of interacting elements organized to achieve one or more stated purposes. An integrated set of elements, subsystems, or assemblies that accomplish a defined objective. These elements include products (hardware, software, firmware), processes, people, information, techniques, facilities, services, and other support elements.
  • Sketch the triangle of aspects on life cycles.
    System integrity requires that these three aspects are in balance and given equal emphasis at all decision gate reviews.
  • 1461621600 Exercise 1

  • Sketch the extended V-Model for the Lawnmower.
    Conceptualize, elicit requirements 

    prototype, produce, sale
  • The V-Model from SE sight
  • What is a Use-Case? Sketch am example.
    A use case contents a number of procedures, which show how the system is used and which situations/messages it needs to deal with.

  • The environment model: (Consens based)
    The model describes the embedding of the system to develop in it`s environment. The system is considered as a black box and interrelated with elements of it`s
    environment with whom it is interacting or from whom it is influenced.
    Elements are:
    • System elements of the environment
    • System elements
    • Energy flow
    • Material flow
    • Information flow 
    (Flows: disruptive&normal)
  • Die Wirkstruktur beschreibt den grundsätzlichen Aufbau und die Wirkungsweise des Systems. Sie ist Bestandteil der Prinziplösung mechatronischer Systeme und lässt sich aus geeigneten Kombinationen von Lösungselementen zur Erfüllung von Teilfunktionen mittels des Morphologischen Kastens ableiten.

    Elements of effect structure:
    System elements (multiple/simple)
    • Energy flow
    • Material flow
    • Information flow 
  • Structure 
    The structure shows the real relationship's between different elements. The relationships do only show real mechanical connections.
  • 1462226400 Systems Engineering V2&3

  • What is a Blackbox, Whitebox and Greybox?
    A Blackbox does only look at the in- and output. The rerelation of both can only be described stochastically.

    In a Whitebox the system will be shown, with all causes and effects in between the input and output. (Mathecally possible)
    -> high complexity

    The Greybox is a Blackbox with a subsystem seen like a Whitebox.
  • What is systems thinking?
    Systems thinking is a mind-set of reducing complexity.
    Uses describing terms for relations and overviews

    Includes model-based approaches for simplifying
    complex systems as much as it is necessary and adequate

    Is based on an overviewing approach of thinking about
  • What kind of different system views are there?
    Depending on the approach the views can be divided

    In the engineering process different departments have different views on a developed product
  • What is a 'Life cylce' (always for Soi). Name difference between technical and economical view on life cycles.

    Economical view starts with product launch, systems engineering starts from the very first idea

    • every system has a life-cycle, even if it is not formally defined
    • life cycle refers to the System-of-interest
    • life cycle is structured in stages
    • every stage of a life-cycle ends up with a decision gate
    • the Systems Engineer is responsible for the individual planning of the system life-cycle (tailoring process)
    • Systems Engineering processes on the beginning of the life-cycle, but keeps track for the whole life-cycle
  • INCOSE Definition: System of systems applies to a system‐of‐interest (Soi) whose system elements are themselves systems; typically these entail large scale inter‐disciplinary problems with multiple, heterogeneous, distributed systems.
  • Life cycle (per ISO/IEC 15288)

    “A system progresses through its life cycle as the result of actions, performed and managed by people in organizations, using processes for of these actions.”
  • How do identify a System of System over a System of interests?
    • Operational independence of constituent systems
    • Managerial independence of constituent systems
    • Geographical distribution
    • Emergent behavior
    • Evolutionary development processes

    By working together the systems generate greater benefits than by the use of every system on its own
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Laatst toegevoegde flashcards

SE Management - Risk Management. Draw a model of Risk Management Activities over the Project Phases.
Risks will be identifies and managed throughout the project!
Sketch the V Model from DoT
Why do we need tailoring? And what Tailoring levels are there?
SE approach is not immediately applicable as it is described by INCOSE

  • Tailoring enables use of SE
  • Experience and Best practices are necessary 
-> allows adding and deleting of processes

External standard
(e.g. INCOSE Handbook) --> 

Organizational Level (company) --
Project Level (SOI)
What is the 'SEMP –Systems Engineering Management Plan'?
A plan that...
...includes all project plans and activities (from concept to disposal)
...defines what and how activities are executed
...defines how the effort will be managed (responsiblilities... risk management)
What is the aim of the Life Cycle Model Management Process?

Establish and maintain policies and procedures to support the organization's ability to acquire and supply products and services

Provides life-cycle integrated system models to meet the organization‘s strategic plans, policies, goals, and objectives for all projects and system life cycle stages.
Sketch the extended V-Model with all processes
V Model
Name and explain different verification concepts!
examination against applicable documentation (Confirmation of requirements, properties)
Example: Color, Weight, Dimensions

Analytical data or simulations (theoretical compliance)
Used if not possible or too expensive
Example: FEM   

Qualitative exhibition of functional performance
Example: Average battery life

Written assurance with legal or industrial standarts
Example: CE / ISO

Function of interest is tested under controlled conditions
Explain the difference of the architecture definition versus the design definition. (Use 3 arguments)

  • The architecture definition process focuses on the understanding and resolution of the stakeholder concerns.
  • The design definition process is driven by specified requirements, the architecture, and more detailed analysis of performance and feasibility

  • Architecture focuses on suitability, viability, and adaptability over the life cycle.
  • Design definition addresses the implementation technologies and their assimilation.
  • Architecture focuses more on the „what“ than the „how“.
  • Design provides the „how“ or „implement-to“ level of the definition.
What is the purpose of the Design Definition Process? And what makes a system design?

Provide sufficient detailed data and information about the system and its elements -> enable the implementation consistent with architectural entities

System Design…
supplements the system architecture providing information and data useful and necessary for implementation of the system elements.

…is the process of developing, expressing, documenting and communicating the realization of the architecture of the system through a complete set of design characteristics described in a form suitable for implementation.
Explain the Costs over the Life cycle in a diagram.
Early stage low cost percentage but big influence on overall costs. (Failures here lead to higher costs in the end, changes,...)