Samenvatting Contemporary Management with Connect Plus

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ISBN-10 0071314431 ISBN-13 9780071314435
120 Flashcards en notities
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Dit is de samenvatting van het boek "Contemporary Management with Connect Plus ". De auteur(s) van het boek is/zijn Gareth R Jones. Het ISBN van dit boek is 9780071314435 of 0071314431. Deze samenvatting is geschreven door studenten die effectief studeren met de studietool van Study Smart With Chris.

Samenvatting - Contemporary Management with Connect Plus

  • 1.2 The Evolution of Management Thought

  • The order of different management theories:

    • Scientific management theory - Frederick Taylor
    • Administrative management theory - Max Weber
    • behavioral management theory - 
    • management science theory
    • organizational environment theory
  • Principles of the Scientific management theory:

    • Study the tasks and expirement with them to improve effectiveness and efficiency
    • Use this experience to write standard procedures and rules
    • Carefully select workers that have the best abilities that match the requirements for the task
    • Establish an acceptable level of performance and develop a reward sytem for performance above this level
  • The 2 inventions that launched the industrial revolution were:

    • The steam engine
    • Electricity
  • Administratative management is the study of how to create an organizational structure and control system that leads to high efficiency and effectiveness.

    The principles are:

    • A person's authority derives from the position he holds in the organization
    • Your position is derived from your personal performance, not from priviliges
    • Each persons authority and task should be very clearly specified
    • The organization should be hierarchically structured
    • The sytem of rules and operating procedures should be well defined 
  • What was the symbol of Taylorism

    The stopwatch

  • The difference between Taylor and the Gilberths is that Taylor was busy primarly with reducing process time to increase efficiency. The gilberths sought to improve efficiency by removing unnecessary components of a task. The gilberths were more concerned with workers welfare

  • Fayol's principles of management:

    • DIVISION OF LABOR To prevent boredom people should get more responsibility for work outcome or they should be given more tasks
    • AUTHORITY AND RESPONSIBILITY Authority is received hierearchally but also informal by having expertise or other job related skills
    • UNITY OF COMMAND An employee should receive orders from only one superior
    • LINE OF AUTHORITY  The length of the authority chain from top to bottom should be limited
    • CENTRALIZATION Authority should be equally divided to every layer of the chain
    • UNITY OF DIRECTION There must be one purpose or goal, just like unity of command
    •  EQUITY Everyone should be treated with respect and justive
    •  ORDER The arrangement of organizational positions should be very carefully done to ensure efficiency
    • INITIATIVE Managers should allow employees to be innovative and creative
    •  DISCIPLINE Managers should create a workforce that strives unanimously to reaching organizational goals
    • REMUNERATION OF PERSONNEL The system that managers use to reward employees should be equitable for both employees and the organization
    • STABILITY OF TENURE OF PERSONNEL It is important to have employees for a long time so efficieny is improved because skills improve over a long time
    •  SUBORDINATION OF INDIVIDUAL INTERESTS TO THE COMMON INTEREST Employees should understand how their performance affects the performance of the whole organization
    • ESPRIT DE CORPS  Managers should encourage the development of shared feelings of comradship, enthusiasm, or devotion to a common cause

     

  • Behavioral management theory is:

    How a manager should behave to motivate and encourage their employees

  • Mary Parket Follett was concerned that Taylor ignored thee human part of an organization, so she suggested that workers help in analyzing their jobs and tasks to increase efficiency and that they should control their tasks if they have the relevant knowledge. Her primary idea was that authority comes with knowledge, up the line or down.

  • Douglas McGregor: two sets of assumptions about workers, and a manager should work according to his assumptions about the workers

     

    Theory X: Negative
    Theory Y: Positive

     

    And managers should handle their employees in a coresponding way to their attitudes

  • What does the Organizational environment Theory focus on?

    How managers control the organization's relationship with its external environment

  • The four concerns of the management science theory are:

     

    • Quantitative management
    • Operations management
    • Total quality management
    • Management information systems
  • Organizations are Social entities that are goal directed, are designed as deliberately structured and coordinated activity systems and are linked to the external environment

     

  • Richard L Dafts general view on organizations:

    • The key element of an organization is not a building or a set of policies and procedures; Organizations are made up of people and their relationships to one another
    • Managers deliberately structure and coordinate organizational resources to achieve the organization's purpose
    • The modern organization may be the most significant innovation of the past 100 years.

    His view on the contributions of organizations:

    1. Organizations bring together resources(labour, materials) to achieve desired goals and outcomes;
    2. Produce goods and services efficiently (competitive prices, benefits)
    3. Facilitate innovation (e-business, computers, redesigning organizational structures etc.)
    4. Use modern manufacturing and information technologies (e-business, computers);
    5. Adapt to and influence a changing environment (globalization)
    6. create value for owners, customers and employees;
    7. Accomodate ongoing challenges of diversity, ethics and the motivation and coordination of employees (cope with growing concerns about ethics and social responsibility
  • Two perspectives on Organizations

     

    1. Open system view: Must interact with the environment to survive, it consumes resources and exports resources to the environment. It cannot seal itself off. Every system that must interact with the environment to survive is an open system.
    2. Organizational Configuration(Henry Mintzberg): An organization is divided into 5 parts:
    • The technical core (basic labor force)
    • Top management (goals, direction, strategy)
    • Middle management (responsible for implementation and coordination on department level)
    • Technical support (R&D, Marketing research)
    • Administrative support (smoothin it out)

     

  • Measuring and Comparing organizations:

    1. Structural Dimensions:
    • Formalization (amount of written documentation/rules)
    • Specialization (Degree in which organizational tasks are subdivided)
    • Hierarchy of authority (who reports to who and span of control for managers)
    • Centralization (Refers to the hierarchical level that has authority to make a decision
    • Professionalism (level of formal education and training of employees)
    • Personell ratios (deployment of people to various functions and department)

         2. Contextual dimensions

    • Size: Organizations are social systems, thus size is measured by the number of people in the organization
    • Organizational technology: Tools, techniques and actions used to transform inputs to outputs
    • Environment: all elements outside the boundary of the organization
    • Goals and strategy: define the purpose and competitive techniques
    • Culture: the underlying set of values, beliefs, understandings and norms shared by employees
  • Two types of organizational designs:

     

    1. Mechanistic
    2. Organic

    Mechanistic:

    • Tasks are broken into specialized, separate parts
    • Tasks are rigidly defined
    • There is a strict hierarchy of authority and control, and there are many rules;
    • Knowledge and control of tasks are centralized at the top of the organization
    • Communication is vertical

    Organic:

    • Employees contribute to the common task of the department
    • Tasks are adjusted and redefined through employee teamwork
    • There is less hierarchy of authority and control, and there are few rules
    • Knowledge of tasks are located anywhere in the organization
    • Communication is horizontal

     

  • Contingency theory:   The idea that the best organizational structure doesnt exist, it depends on the characteristics of the external environment in which the organization operates
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