Samenvatting Critical Thinking A Concise Guide

ISBN-10 131767717X ISBN-13 9781317677178
218 Flashcards en notities
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Dit is de samenvatting van het boek "Critical Thinking A Concise Guide". De auteur(s) van het boek is/zijn Tracy Bowell Gary Kemp. Het ISBN van dit boek is 9781317677178 of 131767717X. Deze samenvatting is geschreven door studenten die effectief studeren met de studietool van Study Smart With Chris.

Samenvatting - Critical Thinking A Concise Guide

  • 1 Introducting Arguments

  • Which things are necessary to practice critical thinking?
    • Attitude 
    • knowledge
    • thinking skills
  • What are the steps to learn critical thinking?
    1. Explicitly learn the skills of critical thinking
    2. develop the disposition for effortful thinking (develop flexibility)
    3. study in ways that increase the probability of transcontextual transfer (use skills not just in a few cases but all the time)
    4. make metacognitive (thinking about thoughts) monitoring explicit and implicit 
  • What is giving an argument?
    An attempt to persuade by giving (good) reasons
  • What is the difference between an explanation and an argument?
    • An explanation is trying to illustrate WHY something is the case
    • an argument is trying to illustrate THAT something is the case
  • How do we call any verbal or written attempt to persuade someone that does not attempt to give good reasons, but attempts to persuade through the power of words or images?
  • How do we call a set of propositions of which one is a conclusion and the remainder are premises, intended as support for the conclusion?
    An argument
  • Of which components does an argument consist?
    a set of propositions;
    • A number of premises
    • a conclusion
  • What are tools to recognize conclusions and premises?
    • Define the main point of the text
    • what are the reasons for the conclusion
    • search indicators
  • Which search indicators are there to help finding conclusions and premises?
    • Search for key words
    • rewrite the argumentation if needed
    • conclusions and assumptions may be implicit
    • remove unnecessary material
  • Which three steps need to be taken when analysing attempts to persuade?
    • Distinguishing wether an argument is presented, and identify the issue being discussed
    • once identified, reconstruct the argument (rewrite it to present it clearly)
    • evaluating the argument
  • What is the difference between an argument and an unsupported claim?
    • An argument needs the claim the arguer wants to convince the audience of, plus at least one claim in support of that claim.
    • an unsupported claim is simply one claim.
  • How do we call the claim an arguer is trying have others accept?
    The conclusion
  • How do we call the claim that supports the claim an arguer is trying to have others accept?
    The premise
  • How do we call the factual content expressed by a declarative sentence?
    A proposition
  • How do we call a word or expression whose meaning is dependent on the context in which it is used?
    An indexical
  • Describe the standard form.
    1. Premise 1
    2. premise 2
    3. inference bar (line between premises and conclusion)
    4. conclusion
  • How do we call rewriting an argument into the standard form?
    A reconstruction of the argument, reconstructing the argument
  • How do you identify the conclusion?
    • Find the main point of the passage, after finding out the passage contains an argument, the main point is the conclusion.
    • rewrite (implicit) statements into declarative sentences in order to reconstruct the argument.
    • check for conclusion indicating words, therefor, hence, thus, so, etc.
      • but also; proves, implies, shows
      • because, for, follows from the fact that
    • insert conclusion indicating words in case they're absent in the text, in a way that the meaning doesn't change and the sentences run smoothly
  • How do you identify the premises?
    • Determine what the writer's reasons for believing their conclusions are, those ae the premises.
    • look for premise indicating words, premise indicators.
    • rewrite implicit premises
  • Which components are not taken into a reconstruction of an argument?
    The premise, or conclusion indicators
    the standard form is solely written in propositions (factual statements).
  • How do we call an argument for why an action is reasonable or acceptable?
    A justification
  • How do we call a conclusion that is used as a premise in a further argument?
    An intermediate conclusion
  • How do we call an argument in which an intermediate conclusion is used?
    An extended argument
  • How do we call the move from premises to conclusion?
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Laatst toegevoegde flashcards

How do we call a series of initials used as thought they are a word to provide an abbreviation for a name or phrase?
How do we call a way of speaking or writing that uses words or phrases that are likely to be unfamiliar to most of the audience, or which uses familiar words in an unfamiliar way?
How do we call fashionable words or phrases that are loaded with rhetorical power due to their rich secondary connotation.
How do we call a tactic of avoiding discussion or an issue or acknowledgement of a point by addressing a different issue?
A smoke screen
How do we call the tactic of asking for an explanations for some proposition, implying that this proposition is true like, when did you stop beating your wife?
Many questions.
How do we call the tactic of using a statement's implicature to mislead the audience?
Trading on implicature.
How do we call the rhetorical ploy in which the ambiguity or vagueness of a word is exploited?
Of what rhetorical ploy is this an example; My opponent of course has his 'reasons' for what he believes to be right?
Scare quotes, and also appeal to ridicule.
What is hard sell?
Repeated direct attack
How do we call the rhetorical ploy where a simple slogan or statement is mentioned, without any appeal whatsoever, like; Drink tea!
Direct attack.