Samenvatting Development through the lifespan

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ISBN-10 0205705901 ISBN-13 9780205705900
1244 Flashcards en notities
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Dit is de samenvatting van het boek "Development through the lifespan". De auteur(s) van het boek is/zijn Laura E Berk. Het ISBN van dit boek is 9780205705900 of 0205705901. Deze samenvatting is geschreven door studenten die effectief studeren met de studietool van Study Smart With Chris.

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Samenvatting - Development through the lifespan

  • 1 Prenatal Development, Birth, and the newborn baby

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  • 1.2.3 Relative Influence of Nature and Nurture?

  • What is  'nature' in the context (child) developement?
    Nature is the 'set of genes' a child is born with. The child inherits these from its paternal parents and they determine certain predispositions for personal/ developmental characteristics.
  • 3.8 The newborn baby's capacities

  • infants = zuigelingen
    circumcised = besneden
    anesthetic = verdoving
    distinguish = onderscheiden
    syllables = lettergrepen
  • New born infants have a remarkable set of capacities that are crucial for survival and for evoking attention and care from parents
  • 3.8.1 Newborn reflexes

  • Wat is een reflex?
    Een aangeboren automatische reactie bij een prikkel
  • A reflex is an inborn, automatic response to a particular form of stimulation. Reflexes are the newborn baby's most obvious organized patterns of behaivior.

    Some reflexs have survival value. The rooting reflex helps a breastfed baby find the mother's nipple. Babies display it only when hungry and touched by another person, not when they touch themselves. At birth, babies adjust their sucking pressure to how easily milk flows from the nipple.

    The stepping reflex looks like a permitive walking response.

    In infants who gain weight quickly in the weeks after birth, the stepping reflex drops out because thigh and calf  muscles are not strong enough to lift the baby's chubby legs.
  • But if the lower part of the infant's body is dipped in water, the reflex reappears because the buoyancy of the water lightens the load of the baby's muscles.

    When stepping is exercised regularly, babies make more reflexive stepping movements and are likely to walk several weeks earlier than if stepping is not practiced.
  • reflexes can also help caregivers comfort the baby because they permit infants to control distress and amount of stimulation.

    FOR EXAMPLE:  pa e baby no yora den e tienda mi ta dune un chupong. e chupong ta yuda pa e calma y leda keto te ora mi ta kla pa dune cuminda, cambie of carge.
  • 3.8.2 Newborn states

  • Wat zijn de fases van een pasgeboren baby?
    Regelmatige slaap, onregelmatige slaap, slaperigheid, rustige alertheid, wakker zijn en huilen
  • Throughhout the day and night, newborn infants move in and out of five states of arousual,nor degrees of sleep amd wakefulness.

    The mpst fleeting is quiet alartness, which usually moves quickly toward fussing amd crying. Much to the relief of their fatigud parents, newborns spend the greatest amount of time asleep. About 16 - 18 hours a day. Because the fetus tends to synchronize periods of rest and activity with those of the mother, newborns sleep more at night than during the day.
  • Hoe noemen ze onregelmatige slaap ook wel?
    REM slaap (rapid-eye-movement)
  • A few newborns sleep for long periods, increasing the energy their well-rested parents have for sensitive, responsive care. Other babies cry a great deal, and their parents must exert great effort to soothe them.
  • Hoe noemen ze regelmatige slaap ook wel?
    NREM slaap (non-rapid-eye-movement)
  • Babies who spend more time alert probably receive more social stimulation and opportunities to explore and, therefore, may have a slight advantage in mental development. And as with adults, sleep enhances babies learning memory.
  • Na hoeveel weken word het huilen minder?
    6 weken
  • SLEEP:
    During irregular, or rapid-eye-movement (REM), sleep, brain- wave activity is remarkably similar to that of the waking state. The eyes dart beneath the lids; heart rate, blood pressure and breathing are uneven and slight body movements occur. In contrast during regular or non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM), sleep, the body os almost motionless, and heart rate, breathing and brain-wave activity are slow and even.
  • However, they spend far more time in the REM state than they ever will again. REM sleep accounts for 50% of a newborn baby''s sleep time. By 3 to 5 years, it has declined to an adultlike level of 20%.
  • Why do young infants spend so much time sleeping in REM sleep? In older children or adults the REM sleep is associated with dreaming. Babies probably do not dream. Researches believe that the stimulation of REM sleep is vital for growth of the centraal nervous system. Young infants seem to have special need for this stimulation. Because they spend little time in an alert state, when they can get input from the enviroment.
  • In infants who are brain-damaged or who have experencedirth trauma, disturbed REM - NREM sleep cycles are often present. Babies with poor sleep organization are likely to be behaviorally disorganized and therefore to have difficulty learning and evoking caregiver interactions that enhance their development. In the preschool years they show delayed motor, cognitive and language development.
  • Brain functioning problems that underlie newborn sleep irregularities may culminate in sudden infant death syndrome. A major cause of infant morality.
  • CRYING:
    Crying is the first way that babies communicate letting parents know they need food, comfort or stimulation. But most of the time, the nature pf the cry, combined with the experiences leading up to it, help  guide parents toward its cause. The baby's cry is a complex stimulus that varies in intensity from a whimper to a message of all-out distress.
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