Samenvatting Encyclopedia of Counseling Master Review and Tutorial for the National Counselor Examination, State Counseling Exams, and the Counselor Preparation Comprehensive Examination

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Samenvatting - Encyclopedia of Counseling Master Review and Tutorial for the National Counselor Examination, State Counseling Exams, and the Counselor Preparation Comprehensive Examination

  • 3 Human Growth and Development

  • The only psychoanalyst who created a developmental theory which encompasses the entire life span was

    a. Erik Erikson.
    b. Milton H. Erickson.
    c. A. A. Brill.
    d. Jean Piaget.

    a. Erik Erikson.

    In Freudian theory, the final stage (i.e., the genital stage) begins at age 12 and is said to continue throughout one’s life span. Many scholars do not feel that Freud’s theory truly covers the entire life span. They find it difficult to believe that a crisis at age 12 remains the central issue until senility sets in! Erikson, also a psychoanalyst and a disciple of Freud’s, created a theory with eight stages in which each stage represents a psychosocial crisis or a turning point. Since the final stage does not even begin until age 60, most personality theorists believe that his theory actually covers the entire life of an individual. As for the other choices, Brill is analytic and will be discussed in the section on career theory. Milton H. Erickson, not to be confused with Erik Erikson, has a “c” in his name and is generally associated with brief psychotherapy and innovative techniques in hypnosis. Piaget is the leading name in cognitive development in children. 

  • The statement, “the ego is dependent on the id,” would most likely reflect the work of

    a. Erik Erikson.
    b. Sigmund Freud.
    c. Jay Haley.
    d. Arnold Lazarus, William Perry, and Robert Kegan. 

    b. Sigmund Freud.

    In Freudian theory the id is also called the pleasure principle and houses the animalistic instincts. The ego, which is known as the reality principle, is pressured by the id to succumb to pleasure or gratification regardless of consequences. Erikson, an ego psychologist, would not emphasize the role of the id, but rather the power of control or the ego. Jay Haley is known for his work in strategic and problem solving therapy, often utilizing the technique of paradox. He claims to have acquired a wealth of information by studying the work of Milton H. Erickson, who is mentioned in the previous question. Arnold Lazarus is considered a pioneer in the behavior therapy movement, especially in regard to the use of systematic desensitization, a technique which helps clients cope with phobias. Today his name is associated with multimodal therapy. Perry is known for his ideas related to adult cognitive development; especially college students. Exam hint: Throughout this text I will be giving you a wealth of exam hints. In fact, this edition contains considerably more exam hints than any earlier edition. These hints will often espouse concepts that go beyond merely answering the question because I have this uncanny notion that the extra information can boost your exam score. On occasion, I will repeat myself (often using a different explanation) because the concept is a tad fuzzy to grasp or just to make certain it won’t appear to be a foreign language if the material is presented in a unique manner on the exam. Okay, enough filibustering, time for the first hint. Perry is known for his ideas related to adult cognitive development; especially regarding college students. For exam purposes I would commit to memory the fact that Perry stresses a concept known as dualistic thinking common to teens in which things are conceptualized as good or bad or right and wrong. Dualism has also been referred to as black and white thinking with virtually no ambiguity. Noted counseling author Ed Neukrug shares the fact that students in this stage assume that a professor has “the answer.” As they enter adulthood and move into relativistic thinking the individual now has the ability to perceive that not everything is right or wrong, but an answer can exist relative to a specific situation. In essence there is more than one way to view the world. Finally, Robert Kegan is another well-known figure in the area of adult cognitive development. Kegan’s model stresses interpersonal development. Kegan’s theory is billed as a “constructive model of development, meaning that individuals construct reality throughout the lifespan.” 

  • Jean Piaget’s theory has four stages. The correct order from stage 1 to stage 4 is

    a. formal operations, concrete operations, preoperations, sensorimotor.
    b. formal operations, preoperations, concrete operations, sensorimotor.
    c. sensorimotor, preoperations, concrete operations, formal operations.
    d. concrete operations, sensorimotor, preoperations, formal operations. 
    c. sensorimotor, preoperations, concrete operations, formal operations

    Piaget was adamant that the order of the stages remains the same for any culture, although the age of the individual could vary. It is time for your first memory device. It would make sense that Piaget’s first stage emphasizes the senses and the child’s motoric skills, hence the name sensorimotor stage. I can remember the last stage by reminding myself that people seem to be more formal as they get older. The final stage is of course formal operations. As for the other two stages, the stage with “pre” (i.e., preoperations) must come before the remaining stage which is concrete operations. Do not automatically assume that my memory devices will be the best ones for you. Instead, experiment with different ideas. The memory strategies presented here are simply ones which my students and I have found helpful. 

  • Some behavioral scientists have been critical of the Swiss child psychologist Jean Piaget’s developmental research inasmuch as

    a. he utilized the t test too frequently.
    b. he failed to check for type 1 or alpha errors.
    c. he worked primarily with minority children.
    d. his findings were often derived from observing his own children. 
    d. his findings were often derived from observing his own children. 

    Piaget was trained as a biologist and then worked with Alfred Binet in France. Binet created the first intelligence test. Piaget’s research methods, though very innovative,could be classified as informal ones. He sometimes utilized games and interviews. Who were his subjects? Well, often they were Lucienne, Laurent, and Jaqueline: his own children. Some researchers have been critical of his methods. Answer choice “a” is incorrect, as a t test is a parametric statistical test used in formal experiments to determine whether there is a significant difference between two groups. The “t” in t test should be written with a lower case t and is technically utilized to ascertain if the means of the groups are significantly different from each other. When using the t test the groups must be normally distributed. Some books will refer to the t test as the Student’s t. Choice “b” will be discussed in much greater detail in the section on research and evaluation. This choice is incorrect inasmuch as Piaget generally did not rely on statistical experiments that would be impacted by type 1 or alpha errors.

  • A tall skinny pitcher of water is emptied into a small squatty pitcher. A child indicates that she feels the small pitcher has less water. The child has not yet mastered

    a. symbolic schema.
    b. conservation.
    c. androgynous psychosocial issues.
    d. trust versus mistrust. 
    b. conservation

    This is a must-know principle for any major test in counseling! In Piaget’s theory the term conservation refers to the notion that a substance’s weight, mass, and volume remain the same even if it changes shape. According to Piaget, the child masters conservation and the concept of reversibility during the concrete operations stage (ages 7 to 11 years). Now here is a super memory device. Both conservation and the ability to count mentally (i.e., without matching something up to something else physically) both occur in the concrete operational thought stage. Fortunately, conservation, counting, and concrete operations all start with a “c.” How convenient! And you thought memorizing these principles was going to be difficult. The other answer choices are ridiculous, and that’s putting it mildly. In Piaget’s theory, symbolic schema is a cognitive structure that grows with life experience. A schema is merely a system which permits the child to test out things in the physical world. Choice “c,” androgynous, is a term which implies that humans have characteristics of both sexes. (The Greek word andros means man while the Greek word for women is gyne.) And, of course, by now you know that trust vs. mistrust is Erikson’s first psychosocial stage.

  • In Piagetian literature, conservation would most likely refer to

    a. volume or mass.
    b. defenses of the ego.
    c. the sensorimotor intelligence stage.
    d. a specific psychosexual stage of life. 

    a. volume or mass. 

    If you missed this question go back to square one! The answer given for question 7 clearly explains this principle. Again, a child who has not mastered conservation does not think in a very flexible manner. A child, for example, is shown a pie cut into 2 pieces. Next, the same pie is cut into 10 pieces. If the child has not mastered conservation he or she will say that the pie that is now cut into 10 pieces is bigger than when it was cut into just 2 pieces. You can’t fool a child who has mastered conservation, however. This child will know that the pie has not changed in volume and mass. In general, the statistical research of David Elkind supports Piaget’s notions regarding conservation. Piaget and Elkind report that mass is the first and most easily understood concept. The mastery of weight is next, and finally the notion of volume can be comprehended. (A good memory device might be MV, such as in most valuable player. The “M,” or mass, will come first and the “V,” or volume, will be the final letter. The “W,” or weight, can be squeezed in-between.)

  • ________expanded on Piaget’s conceptualization of moral development.

    a. Erik Erikson
    b. The Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky
    c. Lawrence Kohlberg
    d. John B. Watson 

    c. Lawrence Kohlberg 

    Choice “b” provides another key name. Vygotsky disagreed with Piaget’s notion that developmental stages take place naturally. Vygotsky insisted that the stages unfold due to educational intervention. Kohlberg, the correct answer, is perhaps the leading theorist in moral development. Kohlberg’s, Erikson’s, and Maslow’s theories are said to be epigenetic in nature. Epigenetic is a biological term borrowed from embryology. This principle states that each stage emerges from the one before it. The process follows a given order and is systematic. John B. Watson, mentioned in choice “d,” is the father of American behaviorism and coined the term behaviorism in 1912. 

  • According to Piaget, a child masters the concept of reversibility in the third stage, known as concrete operations or concrete operational thought. This notion suggests

    a. that heavier objects are more difficult for a child to lift.
    b. the child is ambidextrous.
    c. the child is more cognizant of mass than weight.
    d. one can undo an action, hence an object can return to its initial shape. 
    d. one can undo an action, hence an object can return to its initial shape.

    Choice “d” is the definition of reversibility. The word ambidextrous, utilized in choice “b,” refers to an individual’s ability to use both hands equally well to perform tasks.

  • During a thunderstorm, a 6-year-old child in Piaget’s stage of preoperational thought (stage 2) says, “The rain is following me.” This is an example of

    a. egocentrism.
    b. conservation.
    c. centration.
    d. abstract thought. 

    a. egocentrism. 

    Expect to see a question on the test like this one and you can’t go wrong. This is the typical or prototype question you will come across in order to ascertain whether you are familiar with the Piagetian concept of egocentrism. By egocentrism, Piaget was not really implying the child is self-centered. Instead, egocentrism conveys the fact that the child cannot view the world from the vantage point of someone else. Choice of “d” mentions abstract thought, which does not occur until Piaget’s final or fourth stage known as formal operations.

  • Lawrence Kohlberg suggested

    a. a single level of morality.
    b. two levels of morality.
    c. three levels of morality.
    d. preoperational thought as the basis for all morality. 
    c. three levels of morality.

    Kohlbergs theory has three levels of moral development: the Preconventional, Conventional, and Postconventional level which is referred to in some texts as the Personal Integrity or Morality of Self-Accepted Principles level. Each level can be broken down further into two stages.

  • The Heinz story is to Kohlberg’s theory as

    a. a brick is to a house.
    b. Freud is to Jung.
    c. the Menninger Clinic is to biofeedback.
    d. a typing test is to the level of typing skill mastered.

    d. a typing test is to the level of typing skill mastered.

    This is your first chance to wrestle with an analogy type question. The Heinz Story is one method used by Kohlberg to assess the level and stage of moral development in an individual. The story goes like this: A woman in Europe was dying of cancer. Only one drug (a form of radium) could save her. It was discovered by a local druggist. The druggist was charging $ 2,000, which was ten times his cost to make the drug. The woman’s husband, Heinz, could not raise the money and even if he borrowed from his friends, he could only come up with approximately half the sum. He asked the druggist to reduce the price or let him pay the bill later since his wife was dying but the druggist said, “No.” The husband was thus desperate and broke into the store to steal the drug. Should the husband have done that? Why? The individual’s reason for the decision (rather than the decision itself) allowed Kohlberg to evaluate the person’s stage of moral development. In short, the reasoning utilized to solve a moral dilemma such as the Heinz story could be used to assess moral development. Kohlberg’s stages and levels are said to apply to all persons and not merely to those living in the United States. Thus, it is evident that the Heinz Story is most like choice “d,” a typing test. C. G. Jung, mentioned in choice “b,” is the father of analytic psychology. Freud is the father of psychoanalysis. And lastly, the Menninger Clinic in Kansas is a traditional psychoanalytic foothold as well as the site of landmark work in the area of biofeedback, which is a technique utilized to help individuals learn to control bodily processes more effectively. And, oh yes, before you go out and have a good cry, let me emphasize that the story of Heinz is fictional and simply used as a research tool. 

  • Kohlberg’s three levels of morality are

    a. preconventional, conventional, postconventional.
    b. formal, preformal, self-accepted.
    c. self-accepted, other directed, authority directed.
    d. preconventional, formal, authority directed. 

    a. preconventional, conventional, postconventional. 

    In the preconventional level the child responds to consequences. In this stage reward and punishment greatly influence the behavior. In the conventional level the individual wants to meet the standards of the family, society, and even the nation. Kohlberg felt that many people never reach the final level of post-conventional or self-accepted morality. A person who reaches this level is concerned with universal, ethical principles of justice, dignity, and equality of human rights. Kohlberg’s research indicated that under 40% of his middle-class urban males had reached the postconventional level. Ghandi, Socrates, and Martin Luther King Jr. have been cited as examples of individuals who have reached this level, in which the common good of society is a key issue. 

  • Trust versus mistrust is

    a. an Adlerian notion of morality.
    b. Erik Erikson’s first stage of psychosocial development.
    c. essentially equivalent to Piaget’s concept of egocentrism.
    d. the basis of morality according to Kohlberg. 
    b. Erik Erikson’s first stage of psychosocial development. 

    Erikson proposed eight stages and this is the first. This stage corresponds to Freud’s initial oral-sensory stage (birth to approximately 1 year). Each of Erikson’s stages is described using bipolar or opposing tendencies. Although Piaget and Erikson are the most prominent stage theorists, you should also become familiar with the work of Harry Stack Sullivan, who postulated the stages of infancy, childhood, the juvenile era, preadolescence, early adolescence, and late adolescence. Sullivan’s theory, known as the psychiatry of interpersonal relations, is similar to Erikson’s theory in that biological determination is seen as less important than interpersonal issues and the sociocultural demands of society.

  • A person who has successfully mastered Erikson’s first seven stages would be ready to enter Erikson’s final or eighth stage,

    a. generativity versus stagnation.
    b. initiative versus guilt.
    c. identity crisis of the later years.
    d. integrity versus despair. 
    d. integrity versus despair. 

    Each stage is seen as a psychosocial crisis or a turning point. Erikson did not imply that the person either totally succeeds or fails. Instead, he says that the individual leans toward a given alternative (e.g., integrity or despair). The final stage begins at about age 60. An individual who has successfully mastered all the stages feels a sense of integrity in the sense that his or her life has been worthwhile. 

  • In Kohlberg’s first or preconventional level, the individual’s moral behavior is guided by

    a.psychosexual urges.
    c.periodic fugue states.
    b. consequences

    In the consequences stage (called premoral), an M&M or a slap on the behind is more important than societal expectations and the law. In choice “c” the term fugue state refers to an individual who experiences memory loss (amnesia) and leaves home, often with the intention of changing his or her job and identity. What does this have to do with answering the question regarding Kohlberg, you ask? Nothing, that’s decidedly why it’s the wrong answer! In choice “d” you are confronted with the word counterconditioning. This is a behavioristic technique in which the goal is to weaken or eliminate a learned response by pairing it with a stronger or desirable response. Systematic desensitization is a good example, but more on that later.

  • Kohlberg’s second level of morality is known as conventional morality. This level is characterized by
    a.psychosexual urges.
    b.a desire to live up to society’s expectations.
    c.a desire to conform.
    d.b and c.

    d.b and c.

    At the conventional level the individual wishes to conform to the roles in society so that authority and social order can prevail. Kohlberg felt that attempts to upgrade the morals of our youth have failed and he has referred to some character-building education programs as “Mickey Mouse stuff!”

  • Kohlberg’s highest level of morality is termed postconventional morality. Here the individual

    a.must truly contend with psychosexual urges.
    b.has the so-called “good boy/good girl” orientation.
    c.has self-imposed morals and ethics.
    d.a and b.

    c.has self-imposed morals and ethics.
    Only one answer is correct here, folks. Choice “a” reflects the Freudian theory, while choice “b” is stage 3 of Kohlberg’s theory, which occurs at the conventional level. In the “good boy/good girl orientation” the person is concerned with approbation and the ability to please others in order to achieve recognition.

  • According to Kohlberg, level 3, which is postconventional or self-accepted moral principles,

    a.refers to the Naive Hedonism stage.
    b.operates on the premise that rewards guide morals.
    c.a and b. the highest level of morality. However, some people never reach this level. the highest level of morality. However, some people never reach this level.

    Hedonism mentioned in choice “a” occurs in stage 2 of the preconventional level. Here the child says to himself, “If I’m nice others will be nice to me and I’ll get what I want.” Choice “b” actually refers to the first stage of the preconventional level which is the punishment versus obedience orientation

  • Freud and Erikson
    a.could be classified as behaviorists.
    b.could be classified as maturationists.
    c.agreed that developmental stages are psychosexual.
    d.were prime movers in the biofeedback movement.
    b.could be classified as maturationists.

    In the behavioral sciences, the concept of the maturation hypothesis (also known as the maturation theory) suggests that behavior is guided exclusively via hereditary factors, but that certain behaviors will not manifest themselves until the necessary stimuli are present in the environment. In addition, the theory suggests that the individual’s neural development must be at a certain level of maturity for the behavior to unfold. A counselor who believes in this concept strives to unleash inborn abilities, instincts, and drives. The client’s childhood and the past are seen as important therapeutic topics.

  • John Bowlby’s name is most closely associated with
    a.the work of psychologist and pediatrician, Arnold Gesell, a maturationist.
    b.developmental stage theories.
    c.bonding and attachment.
    d.the unconscious mind.
    c.bonding and attachment.

    Arnold Gesell was a pioneer in terms of using a one-way mirror for observing children. Maturationists such as Gesell feel that development is primarily determined via genetics/heredity. Hence, a child must be ready before he or she can accept a certain level of education (e.g., kindergarten). Bowlby’s name starts with a “B,” as does the word bonding. Aren’t memory devices wonderful? John Bowlby saw bonding and attachment as having survival value, or what is often called adaptive significance. Bowlby insisted that in order to lead a normal social life the child must bond with an adult before the age of 3. If the bond is severed at an early age, it is known as “object loss,” and this is said to be the breeding ground for abnormal behavior, or what is often called psychopathology. Mahler calls the child’s absolute dependence on the female caretaker “symbiosis.” Difficulties in the symbiotic relationship can result in adult psychosis.

  • In which Eriksonian stage does the midlife crisis occur?
    a.generativity versus stagnation
    b.integrity versus despair
    c.a and b
    d.Erikson’s stages do not address midlife issues
    a.generativity versus stagnation

    Most theorists believe that the midlife crisis occurs between ages 35 and 45 for men and about five years earlier for women, when the individual realizes his or her life is half over. Persons often need to face the fact that they have not achieved their goals or aspirations. Incidentally, the word generativity refers to the ability to be productive and happy by looking outside one’s self and being concerned with other people. Some exams may refer to this stage as “generativity versus self-absorption.” Daniel Levinson, who wrote Seasons of a Man’s Life and Seasons of a Woman’s Life, viewed the midlife crisis as somewhat positive, pointing out that individuals who do not face it may indeed stagnate or become stale during their fifties. In other words, avoiding or bypassing the crisis can lead to lack of vitality in later years.

  • The researcher who is well known for his work with maternal deprivation and isolation in rhesus monkeys is
    a.Harry Harlow.
    b.John Bowlby.
    c.Lawrence Kohlberg.
    d.all of the above.
    a.Harry Harlow.

    Harlow’s work is now well-known in the social sciences. Harlow believed that attachment was an innate tendency and not one which is learned. Monkeys placed in isolation developed autistic abnormal behavior. When these monkeys were placed in cages with normally reared monkeys some remission of the dysfunctional behavior was noted. Evidence that this is true in man comes from the work of René Spitz, who noted that children reared in impersonal institutions (and hence experienced maternal deprivation between the sixth and eighth month of life) cried more, experienced difficulty sleeping, and had more health-related difficulties. Spitz called this “anaclitic depression.” These infants would ultimately experience great difficulty forming close relationships.

  • The statement: “Males are better than females when performing mathematical calculations” is
    b.true due to a genetic flaw commonly found in women.
    c.true only in middle-aged men.
    d.true according to research by Maccoby and Jacklin.
    d.true according to research by Maccoby and Jacklin.

    Maccoby and Jacklin reviewed the literature and found very few differences that could be attributed to genetics and biological factors. The superiority of males in the area of mathematics, however, was not significant until high school or perhaps college. Girls who excelled in science and math often identified with their fathers and were encouraged to value initiative and were given independence. Thus, the major impetus for sex-role differences may come from child-rearing patterns rather than bodily chemistry.

  • The Eriksonian stage that focuses heavily on sharing your life with another person is
    a.actually the major theme in all of Erikson’s eight stages.
    b.generativity versus stagnation—ages 35 to 60.
    c.intimacy versus isolation—ages 23 to 34.
    d.a critical factor Erikson fails to mention.
    c.intimacy versus isolation—ages 23 to 34.

    If you didn’t know the answer, did you guess? Yes, of course I’m being serious. Remember no penalty is assessed for guessing on the NCE/CPCE. An educated guess based on the fact that intimacy implies  sharing one’s life would have landed you a correct answer here. Counselors need to be aware that an individual who fails to do well in this stage may conclude that he or she can depend on no one but the self.

  • We often refer to individuals as conformists. Which of these individuals would most likely conform to his or her peers?
    a.a 19-year-old male college student.
    b.23-year-old male drummer in a rock band.
    c.a 57-year old female stockbroker.
    d.a 13-year-old male middle school student.
    d.a 13-year-old male middle school student.

    Conformity seems to peak in the early teens.

  • In Harry Harlow’s experiments with baby monkeys
    a.a wire mother was favored by most young monkeys over a terry cloth version.
    b.the baby monkey was more likely to cling to a terry cloth mother surrogate than a wire surrogate mother.
    c.female monkeys had a tendency to drink large quantities of alcohol.
    d.male monkeys had a tendency to drink large quantities of alcohol.
    b.the baby monkey was more likely to cling to a terry cloth mother surrogate than a wire surrogate mother.

    Infant monkeys preferred the terry cloth mothers to wire mothers even though the wire mothers were equipped to dispense milk. Harlow concluded “contact comfort” is important in the development of the infant’s attachment to his or her mother. A 165-day experiment revealed that the monkeys were spending an average of 1½ hours per day with the wire mother and 16 hours with the terry cloth mother. Bowlby, mentioned previously, would say that in humans the parents act as a “releaser stimulus” to elicit relief from hunger and tension through holding.
  • Freud postulated psychosexual stages, ego, and superego.
    b.oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital.
    c.eros, thanatos, regression, and superego.
    d.manifest, latent, oral, and phallic.
    b.oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital.

    Choice “a” depicts Freud’s structural theory of the mind as being composed of the id, the ego, and the superego. In choice “c” the word eros refers to the Freudian concept of the life instinct while thanatos refers to the self-destructive death instinct. Analysis is just brimming with verbiage borrowed from Greek mythology. The term regression is used to describe clients who return to an earlier stage of development. In choice “d” you should familiarize yourself with the terms manifest and latent, which in psychoanalysis refer to the nature of a dream. Manifest content describes the dream material as it is presented to the dreamer. Latent content (which is seen as far more important by the Freudians) refers to the hidden meaning of the dream.

  • In adolescence
    a.females commit suicide more than males.
    b.suicide is a concern but statistically very rare.
    c.the teens who talk about suicide are not serious.
    d.males commit suicide more often than females, but females attempt suicide more often.
    d.males commit suicide more often than females, but females attempt suicide more often.

    Males commit suicide more often than females. This answer would apply not just to adolescence but to nearly all age brackets. One theory is that males are more successful in killing themselves because they use firearms whereas females rely on less lethal methods. Choice “b” is false inasmuch as suicide is generally the 11th or 12th leading cause of death in this country as well as the second or third leading killer of teens each year. And as far as choice “c” is concerned, a counselor should always take it seriously when a client of any age threatens suicide. The truth is that the vast majority of those who have killed themselves have communicated the intent to do so in some manner. So take clients’ suicide threats seriously. Have I made myself clear?

  • In the general population
    a.the suicide rate is 2/100,000.
    b.suicide occurs at the beginning of a depressive episode, but rarely after the depression lifts.
    c.suicide rates tend to increase with age.
    d.b and c.
    c.suicide rates tend to increase with age.

    Choice “b” is way off the mark. Suicidal clients often make attempts after the depression begins to lift! Official statistics indicate about 30,000 suicides each year in the United States. Suicidologists (and yes there is such a word!) believe that the actual number may be closer to 75,000 due to complications in accurately coding the cases. Choice “a” reflects the approximate suicide rate in black females. The overall suicide rate in the United States in any given year is about 11/100,000. Interestingly enough, personality measures such as the MMPI-2 and the Rorschach are not good predictors of suicide or for that matter of suicide attempts. In essence, test profiles of suicidal individuals generally are not distinguishable from those of persons who are not suicidal.

  • The fear of death greatest during middle age. an almost exclusively male phenomenon. the number one psychiatric problem in the geriatric years.
    d.surprisingly enough occurs in the teen years. greatest during middle age.

    In Erikson’s stages the individual would accept the finality of life better during the final state than in the middle age years.

  • In Freudian theory, attachment is a major factor the preconscious mind. the mind of the child in latency.
    c.which evolves primarily during the oral age.
    d.a and b.
    c.which evolves primarily during the oral age.

    This would make sense from a logical standpoint, because the oral stage is the first Freudian psychosexual stage and occurs while the child is still an infant (i.e., the stage goes from birth to one year). As mentioned earlier, attachments in human as well as animal studies indicate that the bonding process takes place early in life.

  • When comparing girls to boys, it could be noted that
    a.girls grow up to smile more.
    b.girls are using more feeling words by age 2.
    c.girls are better able to read people without verbal cues at any age.
    d.all of the above. 
    d.all of the above. 

    Boys on the other hand are more physically active and aggressive, probably due to androgen hormones. Boys also seem to possess better visual–perceptual skills.

  • The Freudian developmental stage which “least” emphasizes sexuality is

    Here’s an easy one. Remember how I mentioned in question 32 that the word latent refers to the hidden meaning of the dream? Well in the developmental stages the sexual drive seems hidden (or at least not very prominent) during latency. Sexual interests are replaced by social interests like sports, learning, and hobbies. Now this is very important: Latency is the only Freudian developmental stage which is not primarily psychosexual in nature. It occurs roughly between ages 6 and 12.

  • In terms of parenting young children
    a.boys are punished more than girls.
    b.girls are punished more than boys.
    c.boys and girls are treated in a similar fashion.
    d.boys show more caregiver behavior.
    a.boys are punished more than girls.

    Hint: Before you sit for the NCE/CPCE or written or oral boards, take a moment to review the major theories and research related to child rearing. Stanley Coopersmith, for example, found that child-rearing methods seem to have a tremendous impact on self-esteem. A study he conducted indicated that, surprisingly enough, children with high self-esteem were punished just as often as kids with low self-esteem. The children with high selfesteem, however, were provided with a clear understanding of what was morally right and wrong. This was not usually the case in children with low self-esteem. The children with high self-esteem actually had more rules than the kids with low self-esteem. When the child with high self-esteem was punished the emphasis was on the behavior being bad and not the  child. Parents of children with high self-esteem were more democratic in the sense that they would listen to the child’s arguments and then explain the purpose of the rules. The Coopersmith study utilized middle-class boys, ages 10 to 12. Choice “d” stands incorrect since girls routinely display more caregiver behavior.

  • When developmental theorists speak of nature or nurture they really mean much heredity or environment interact to influence development.
    b.the focus is skewed in favor of biological attributes.
    c.a and b.
    d.a theory proposed by Skinner’s colleagues. much heredity or environment interact to influence development.

    In this question the word nature refers to heredity and genetic makeup, while nurture refers to the environment. The age-old argument is whether heredity or environment has the greatest impact on the person’s development. Today theorists shy away from an extremist position and admit that both factors play a major role. Just for the record, choice “d” mentioned B. F. Skinner, who was the prime mover in the behavioristic psychology movement. Behaviorists, like Skinner, tend to emphasize the power of environment.

  • Stage theorists assume
    a.qualitative changes between stages occur.
    b.differences surely exist but usually can’t be measured.
    c.that humanistic psychology is the only model which truly supports the stage viewpoint.
    d.b and c.
    a.qualitative changes between stages occur.

    Choice “b” is incorrect inasmuch as differences can often be measured. Just ask any behaviorist! Choice “c” makes no sense because analysts (who are not considered humanistic) such as Freud and Erikson have supported the stage theory viewpoint.

  • Development
    a.begins at birth.
    b.begins during the first trimester of pregnancy. a continuous process which begins at conception.
    d.a and c. a continuous process which begins at conception.

    Developmental psychologists are fond of looking at prenatal influences (i.e., smoking or alcohol consumption) that affect the fetus before birth.

  • Development is cephalocaudal, which means
    a.foot to head.
    b.head to foot.
    c.limbs receive the highest level of nourishment.
    d.b and c.
    b.head to foot.

    The head of the fetus develops earlier than the legs. Cephalocaudal simply refers to bodily proportions between the head and tail.

  • Heredity
    a.assumes the normal person has 23 pairs of chromosomes.
    b.assumes that heredity characteristics are transmitted by chromosomes.
    c.assumes genes composed of DNA hold a genetic code.
    d.all of the above.
    d.all of the above.

    Here is a vest pocket definition of heredity. You should also be familiar with the term heritability, which is the portion of a trait that can be explained via genetic factors.

  • Piaget’s final stage is known as the formal operational stage. In this stage
    a.abstract thinking emerges.
    b.problems can be solved using deduction.
    c.a and b.
    d.the child has mastered abstract thinking but still feels helpless.
    c.a and b.

    Again, unfortunately, Piaget felt a large number of individuals never really reach this stage; hence, the difficulty of subjects like algebra, physics, and geometry. Another characteristic of the formal operations stage is that the child can think in terms of multiple hypotheses. If you ask a child to answer a question such as, “Why did someone shoot the president?,” a child who has mastered formal operations (approximately age 11 and beyond) will give several hypotheses while a child in the previous stages would most likely be satisfied with one explanation. For exam purposes, remember that abstract concepts of time (e.g., What was life like 500 years ago?) or distance (e.g., How far is 600 miles?) can only be comprehended via abstract thinking, which occurs in this stage. Answer “d” is incorrect inasmuch as Piaget felt that when the child finally reached the final stage he or she would be ready for adulthood and would not experience childlike feelings of helplessness,

  • Kohlberg lists _______ stages of moral development which fall into _______ levels.
    a.6, 3
    b.6, 6
    c.3, 6
    d.3, 3
    a.6, 3

    Here is a vest-pocket review of the stages and levels. Preconventional Level with Stage 1, Punishment/Obedience Orientation, and Stage 2, Naive Hedonism (also called instrumental or egotistic) Orientation. The entire first level is sometimes called the “premoral level.” Conventional Level with Stage 3, Good Boy/Good Girl Orientation, and Stage 4, Authority, Law, and Order Orientation. This entire level is often known as “morality of conventional rules and conformity.” Postconventional Level with Stage 5, Democratically Accepted Law or “Social Contract” and Stage 6, Principles of Self-Conscience and Universal Ethics. The last level is sometimes termed the “morality of self-accepted principles level.”

  • A person who lives by his or her individual conscience and universal ethical principles
    a.has, according to Kohlberg, reached the highest stage of moral development. in the preconventional level. in the postconventional level of self-accepted moral principles.
    d.a and c.
    d.a and c.

    Still confused? Review answer given in question 46.

  • Freud’s Oedipus Complex the stage in which fantasies of sexual relations with the opposite-sex parent occurs.
    b.occurs during the phallic stage.
    c.a and b. a concept Freud ultimately eliminated from his theory.
    c.a and b.

    The Oedipus complex is the most controversial part of Freud’s theory and choices “a” and “b” roughly describe it. The Oedipus complex, the boy’s secret wish to marry his mother, paired with rage toward his father, is said to occur between ages 3 and 5. Looking for a good memory device? Well here it is. The Oedipus complex occurs during the phallic stage and both words conveniently contain the letter “p.” Some tests may actually refer to this stage as the phallic—oedipal stage. Freud chose the name based on the Greek myth in which Oedipus, the mythical king of Thebes, unknowingly killed his father and married his mother.

  • In girls the Oedipus complex may be referred to as
    a.systematic desensitization.
    b.covert desensitization. vivo desensitization.
    d.the Electra complex.
    d.the Electra complex.

    In the Oedipus complex in boys and the Electra complex in girls (also grounded in Greek myth), the female child fantasizes about sexual relations with the parent of the opposite sex. This creates tension since this is generally not possible. Hence the child is said to have a fantasy in which he or she wishes to kill the parent of the opposite sex. Freud went on to hypothesize that eventually the child identifies with the parent of the same sex. This leads to internalization of parental values, and thus the conscience or superego is born. As for choices “a,” “b,” and “c,” they are all behavioral terms and hence incorrect. The term covert in choice “b” refers to any psychological process which cannot be directly observed, while in choice “c” I introduce you to “in vivo” which means the client is exposed to an actual situation which might prove frightful or difficult. The word desensitization refers to behavior therapy techniques that help to ameliorate anxiety reactions.

  • The correct order of the Freudian psychosexual stages is:
    a.oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital.
    b.oral, anal, genital, phallic, and latency.
    c.oral, phallic, latency, genital, and anal.
    d.phallic, genital, latency, oral, and anal.
    a.oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital.

    Freud is the father of psychoanalysis, which is the most comprehensive theory of personality and therapy ever devised.

  • Gibson researched the matter of depth perception in children by utilizing
    a.Piaget’s concept of conservation.
    b.Erik Erikson’s trust versus mistrust paradigm.
    c.Piaget’s formal operations.
    d.a visual cliff.
    d.a visual cliff.

    It seems no child development book is complete without a picture of an infant crawling toward an experimenter on a visual cliff. The visual cliff is a device which utilizes a glass sheet which simulates a drop-off. Interestingly enough, infants will not attempt to cross the drop-off, thus indicating that depth perception in humans is inherent (i.e., an inborn or so-called innate trait). By approximately eight months of age the child begins to show stranger anxiety, meaning that he or she can discriminate a familiar person from a person who is unknown.

  • In the famous experiment by Harlow, frightened monkeys raised via cloth and wire mothers
    a.showed marked borderline personality traits.
    b.surprisingly enough became quite friendly.
    c.demonstrated a distinct lack of emotion.
    d.ran over and clung to the cloth and wire surrogate mothers.
    d.ran over and clung to the cloth and wire surrogate mothers.

    When given the choice of two cloth-covered mothers—one that provided milk and one that did not—the infant monkeys chose the one that gave milk. In a later experiment, Harlow and a colleague discovered that a warm mother and a mother who rocked were superior to a cool mother or a mother who did not rock.
  • A theorist who views developmental changes as quantitative is said to be an empiricist. The antithesis of this position holds that developmental strides are qualitative. What is the name given to this position?

    c.statistical developmentalism
    d.all of the above 

    The term organismic also has been used to describe Gestalt psychologists, such as Kurt Goldstein, who emphasize a holistic model.

  • In Piaget’s developmental theory, reflexes play the greatest role in the
    a.sensorimotor stage.
    b.formal operational stage.
    c.preoperational stage.
    d.acquisition of conservation.
    a.sensorimotor stage.

    It would make sense that the child would use reflexes in the first stage, which is termed sensorimotor intelligence. Piaget has said that the term practical intelligence captures the gist of this stage. Piaget emphasized the concept of “object permanence” here. A child who is beyond approximately 8 months of age will search for an object that is no longer in sight (e.g., hidden behind a parent’s back or under a blanket). The child learns that objects have an existence even when the child is not interacting with them.

  • A mother hides a toy behind her back and a young child does not believe the toy exists anymore. The child has not mastered
    a.object permanence.
    b.reflexive response.
    c.representational thought.
    d.a and c.
    d.a and c.

    The child who has not mastered object permanence is still a victim of “out of sight, out of mind.” The child, needless to say, needs representational thought to master object permanence, which is also called object constancy. During this initial stage the child learns the concept of time (i.e., that one event takes place before or after another) and causality (e.g., that a hand can move an object).
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One of the primary problems of counseling in the early 1960s was that it wrongly issues.b.intrapsychic processes.c.referrals to secure antidepressant counseling.
b.intrapsychic processes.

This was not entirely a negative thing; nevertheless, social issues such as Vietnam, civil rights, and women’s issues could have been emphasized to a greater degree.
The major trend that impacted upon the counseling movement in the 1980sa.was reality therapy.b.was behavior modification.c.included an emphasis on professionalism, certification, and licensing.d.was the group movement.
c.included an emphasis on professionalism, certification, and licensing.

Credentialing helped counseling become a specific and separate profession such as psychology or psychiatry. Although group work is still very popular, it emerged as a driving force in the 1970s.
Historically speaking, the first psychology laboratory was set up bya.Frank Parsons, who set up community centers to help individuals in search of work.b.Sigmund Freud, the father of psychoanalysis.c.Wilhelm Wundt, in 1879 in Leipzig, Germany.d.E. G. Williamson.
c.Wilhelm Wundt, in 1879 in Leipzig, Germany.

Wundt was convinced that psychology could be accepted as a science if consciousness could be measured. Wundt’s school of thought is termed structuralism because his interest was in the “structure” of consciousness. German psychologists—and I’m certain you’ll find this humorous in terms of our emphasis today on pragmatic strategies—were convinced that Wundt’s theory was indeed pure science because it had no practical applications! Parsons, choice “a,” has been called the “Father of guidance.” Some historians insist that the profession of counseling officially began when Parsons founded the Vocational Guidance Bureau of Boston and published the book Choosing a Vocation in 1909.
The doctor–patient consultation model relies on four distinct stages: entry, diagnosis, implementation, and evaluation. In order for the doctor—-patient structure to work, the consultee (i.e., the person receiving the consultation) must accurately depict symptomatology, trust the consultant’s diagnosis, and carry out the consultant’s directives. This model is associated most closely with the work ofa.Caplan.b.Freud.c.Adler.d.Schein.

Consultants can focus on process (what is happening from a communications standpoint) or content (knowledge imparted from the consultant to the consultee).
The most popular paradigm of mental health consultation has been proposed bya.Satir and Minuchin.b.Schein.c.Caplan.d.Bandura.

Mental health consultation occurs when a consultant works with a consultee regarding clients or administrative/program issues. When the ultimate goal is to help a client, it is known as a “client-centered” consultation. When your licensing supervisor suggests a plan of action for a given client, then you as a consultee are the recipient of “client-centered” consultation (not to be confused with client-centered therapy). The exam you will take also may mention “consultee-centered” consultation. Here, the focus is on helping the consultee develop improved techniques or skills. Thus, when your licensing supervisor explains a better way for you to implement a hypnotic induction with one of your clients, then you are the recipient of “consultee-centered case consultation.” A variation of this is the “consultee-centered administrative consultation” in which your supervisor or consultant’s intention is to sharpen up your administrative skills (e.g., making you a better presenter at your agency board meeting). Finally, there is the “program-centered administrative consultation.” As the name suggests, the emphasis here is on creating, designing, or evaluating the program in question. These four basic types of mental health consultation have been proposed by Gerald Caplan. Choice “a” identifies two well-known names in the family therapy movement, while Albert Bandura (choice “d”) is well-known for his work in modeling and vicarious learning by observation (sometimes known as “social learning theory”). In this approach, the consultant helps the consultee set up behavioral management programs for the clients.
The type of mental health service provided to the client is coded via _______ and is generally required for insurance payments.a.DSM (e.g., 296.22).b.the ICD (e.g., 311).c.the AMA’s Current Procedural Terminology (e.g., CPT 90844).d.the Psychiatric Dictionary.
c.the AMA’s Current Procedural Terminology (e.g., CPT 90844).

If you want to accept insurance payments you will generally need to specify a CPT code in addition to the DSM or ICD code on your billing statement. The CPT code will specify the exact nature of the treatment being utilized to help your client (e.g., psychotherapy, hypnosis, biofeedback, or group psychotherapy). A CPT code also can specify the length of the service unit, such as “psychotherapy over 30 minutes.” At the end of each session, a client seeking insurance or third-party benefits is given a statement which is sometimes called a “superbill.” The superbill verifies the nature of the counselor/client interaction. At the very least, an acceptable superbill usually lists the client’s name, the date, the DSM or ICD diagnosis, the CPT Code, and the provider’s name and license. It is misrepresentation to list someone else as a direct service provider to secure third-party payments if you provided the service yourself. If an insurance company only reimburses a psychiatrist or a licensed clinical psychologist, then you are not allowed to put the psychologist’s or psychiatrist’s name on the superbill as if he or she were the service provider. The psychiatrist’s or psychologist’s name could, however, be clearly noted as a supervisor. This can help to secure insurance payments in some cases. Third-party providers can and have taken legal action against therapists for such misrepresentation. Moreover, therapists have been require do pay back funds received in this manner. My advice is to play it straight. Your bank account may not be quite as large, but I guarantee you’ll sleep a lot better.
A researcher wants to run a true experiment but insists she will not use a random sample. You could safely say thata.she absolutely, positively cannot run a true experiment.b.her research will absolutely, positively be casual comparative research.c.she could accomplish this using systematic sampling.d.her research will be correlational.
c.she could accomplish this using systematic sampling.

All good things come to an end. For years and years researchers relied on random sampling. Today researchers are slowly but surely embracing systematic sampling, since it is often easier to use. Here’s how it works. With this approach you take every nth person. Say you have a list of 10,000 folks. You want 1,000 in your study. You pick the first person between one and 10 at random and then use every 10th person. According to some statisticians your results will be virtually the same as if you used good old random sampling. Still the random versus systematic sampling debate rages on with the majority embracing the old tried and true random approach.
In a random sample each individual in the population has an equal chance of being selected. Selection is by chance. In a new study, however, it will be important to include 20% African Americans. What type of sampling procedure will be necessary?a.Standard (i.e., simple) random sampling is adequate.b.Cluster sampling is called for.c.Stratifed sampling would be best.d.Horizontal sampling is required.
c.Stratifed sampling would be best.

Remember: Random sampling (choice “a”) is like sticking your hand in a fish bowl to pick a winning ticket. In the random sample each subject has the same probability of being selected, and the selection of one subject does not affect the selection of another subject. The simple random sampling procedure eliminates the  researcher’s tendency to pick a biased sample of subjects. In this case, nevertheless, a simple random sampling procedure will not suffice, since a “stratum” (plural “strata”) or a “special characteristic” needs to be represented. In this case it is race. In other studies it might be gender, educational degree, age, or perhaps therapeutic affiliation. The stratification variable in your sample should mimic the population at large. Thus, if 20% of all Rogerian counselors are African Americans, then your study on Rogerian counselors should have 20% African-American counselors in your sample. In a research situation where a specific number of cases are necessary from each stratum, the procedure often is labeled as “quota sampling.” Quota sampling is merely a type of stratified sampling procedure. The “cluster sample” (choice “b”) is utilized when it is nearly impossible to find a list of the entire population. The cluster sample solves the problem by using an existing sample or cluster of people or selects a portion of the overall sample. A cluster sample will not be as accurate as a random sample yet it is often used due to time and practical considerations. Imagine trying to secure a list of everybody in the United States who is securing treatment for heroin addiction so you can pick a random sample utilizing a random number generator. Instead, you might rely on the population in your home town chemical dependency unit. And yes there really is a procedure called “horizontal sampling,” mentioned in choice “d.” Horizontal sampling occurs when a researcher selects subjects from a single socioeconomic group. Horizontal sampling can be contrasted with “vertical sampling,” which occurs when persons from two or more socioeconomic classes are utilized. Since this question does not specify socioeconomic factors, you could have eliminated choice “d.”
Switching the order in which stimuli are presented to a subject in a study is known asa.the Pygmalion effect.b.counterbalancing.c.ahistoric therapy.d.multiple treatment interference.

Let choice “a” come as no surprise if it shows up on your exam. The Rosenthal/Experimenter effect often shows up wearing this name tag. The experimenter falls in love with his or her own hypothesis and the experiment becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy. Choice “b,” the correct answer, is used to control for the fact that the order of an experiment could impact upon its out-come. The solution is merely to change the order of the experimental factors. Choice “c,” “ahistoric therapy,” connotes any psychotherapeutic model that focuses on the here-and-now rather than the past. This of course has nothing to do with answering the question. Choice “d” warns us that if a subject receives more than one treatment, then it is often tough to discern which modality truly caused the improvements.
If an ANOVA yields a significant F value, you could rely on _______ to test significant differences between group and two-tailed t tests.b.percentile rank.c.Duncan’s multiple-range, Tukey’s, or Scheffe’s test.d.summative or formative evaluation.
c.Duncan’s multiple-range, Tukey’s, or Scheffe’s test.

Choice “a” refers to whether a statistical test places the rejection area at one end of the distribution (one-tailed) or both ends of the distribution curve (two-tailed). A two-tailed test is often called a “nondirectional experimental hypothesis,” while a one-tailed test is a “directional experimental hypothesis.” In a one-tailed test your hypothesis specifies that one average mean is larger than another. So, a two-tailed hypothesis would be, “The average patient who has completed psychoanalysis will have a statistically different IQ from the average patient who has not received analysis.” The one-tailed hypothesis would be, “The average patient who has completed psychoanalysis will have a statistically significantly higher IQ than the average patient who has not received analysis.” When appropriate, one-tailed tests have the advantage of having more “power” than the two-tailed design (i.e., the statistical ability to reject correctly a false hypothesis). In choice “d” you should be aware that summative evaluation is used to assess a final product (e.g., How many high school students are not indulging in alcoholic beverages after completing a yearly program focusing on drug awareness education?). Summative research attempts to ascertain how well the goal has been met. Formative process research, on the other hand, is ongoing while the program is underway (e.g., After three weeks of a proposed year-long drug awareness education program how many high school students are taking drugs?). The correct answer to this question, of course, is alternative “c.” An F test for the ANOVA is analogous to the student’s t test table when performing a t test. In order to further discriminate between the ANOVA groups the post hoc measures mentioned in choice “c” would be appropriate.