Samenvatting Essentials of research methods in health, physical education, exercise science, and recreation

ISBN-10 078177036X ISBN-13 9780781770361
117 Flashcards en notities
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Dit is de samenvatting van het boek "Essentials of research methods in health, physical education, exercise science, and recreation". De auteur(s) van het boek is/zijn Kris E Berg, Richard W Latin. Het ISBN van dit boek is 9780781770361 of 078177036X. Deze samenvatting is geschreven door studenten die effectief studeren met de studietool van Study Smart With Chris.

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Samenvatting - Essentials of research methods in health, physical education, exercise science, and recreation


  • why would a country invest so much money into sport at the excellence level
    • Sporting success=country success
    • Gives National Pride
    • Increase a level of sport/athlete
    • Global exposure
    • Economic Return
    • World Class Facilities
    • Politically influences voters
  • What is the foundation level?
    • the foundation level is the beginner stage 
    • this starts at primary/preschools
    • there are clubs e.g.Kelly sport NZ
    • there are facilities e.g. leisure centre, youth centre, school fields, skate parks, snowplanet
    • programmes: e.g. Kiwi sport- equipment, funding, coaches                                               
  • What is the participation level?
    • Talent ID
    • Secondary schools e.g. top teams
    • clubs
    • College Sport
    • Good competitions
    • Facilities - more specialised facilities

                             - Volunteers 
  • What are Motor Programmes?
    A set of movements stored as a whole in the long-term memory 
    • Contains all the info required to make a movement
    • The order in which muscles to use.
  • What are the two theories concerning motor programmes?
    Open Loop Theory:

    • All information for one movement is sent in a single message
    • The message is received by the muscles to perform the movement 
    • Feedback may or may not b available but it doesn't control the movement 
  • What are the three functions of the Respiratory system?
    • Transports air into the lungs
    • Facilitates the diffusion of oxygen into the blood stream 
    • Helps remove Carbon Dioxide 
  • In order list all the components of the Respiratory system 
    • mouth 
    • pharynx 
    • Larynx
    • Trachea 
    • Bronchi 
    • Bronchioles
    • Alveoli
    • Diaphragm 
  • What is the function of cilia in the Trachea?
    To catch particles of dust 
  • What surrounds the Trachea and helps keep them open?
    Rings of Cartilage
  • What are alveoli surrounded by and what passes through them?
    • They are surrounded by Capillaries 
    • Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide pass between the two
  • When the Diaphragm contracts what happens to its shape and position?
    • it flattens and moves down 
  • How is air drawn into the lungs?
    • An increase in space within the chest cavity occurs when the Diaphragm flattens and the intercostal muscles expand the rib cage.
    • an increase un space means the air pressure is lower inside than outside, causing a rush of air into the lungs.
  • Which part of the brain controls the breathing rate?
    • The Medulla Oblongata 
  • What do Stretch receptors within the Bronchi and Bronchioles do?
    • Prevent excess inspiration 
  • If Carbon dioxide levels get too high, what happens to increase the rate of ventilation and remove the access Carbon Dioxide?
    • carbonic acid is released which causes an increase in Hydrogen ions. This rise stimulates increased ventilation.
  • How does Exhalation occur?
    • occurs due to a sudden stop in impulses along the inspiratory nerves.
  • How does inspiration occur?
    • occurs due to increased firing of inspiratory nerves.
  • What are respiratory volumes?
    respiratory volumes is the amount of air inhaled/exhaled within the lungs at any given time. 
  • What is tidal volume?
    the amount of air that enters the lungs during normal inhalation during rest. the average tidal volume is 500ml. the same amount leaves the lungs during exhalation.
  • Cardiac Volumes: The amount of blood in the left ventricle before the contraction phase of a heart beat is called what?
    end diastolic volume
  • Describe Cardiac Output
    the amount of blood ejected from the heart in the space of a minute
  • At rest what is the average stroke volume?
  • Describe the end systolic volume
    the volume of blood remaining in the ventricle after contraction
  • Stroke volume x heart rate=?
    Cardiac output
  • Circulatory system: What are all the constituents which make up the circulatory system?
    • Heart 
    • Blood
    • Arteries
    • Arterioles
    • Capillaries
    • Venules 
    • Veins
  • What is the main function of the Circulatory system?
    To transport blood and other substances around the body
  • List the three circulatory processes within the body
    • Systemic
    • Pulmonary
    • Coronary
  • Name the largest blood vessel in the body
  • which blood vessel carries oxygenated blood back to the heart from the lungs?
    • Pulmonary Vein
  • What is the name of the group of cells that initiate the heart beat?
    The SA node
  • The period where the heart is at rest is called what?
  • What happens during the P wave?
    The SA node fires so the atria contract forcing blood into the ventricles 
  • What is the job of the AV node?
    to spread the impulse throughout the walls of the ventricles
  • In which two parts of the cycle are the ventricles in systole?
    • RT interval
    • ST segment 
  • What is reaction time?
    the time between the onset of the stimulus and the start of the movement 
  • What are the 4 parts to reaction time?
    1. The stimulus has to activate the particular sensory system
    2. The stimulus has to travel from the sensory system to the brain
    3. The brain has to process the stimulus
    4. The relevant information is then sent to the relevant muscle/groups
  • What strategies/factors affect reaction time?
    • Age
    • Gender
    • Limbs used 
    • Personality
    • Body temp
    • Sensory system receiving the stimulus 
  • How do you improve reaction time?
    • Practice 
    • Mental Rehearsal 
    • Experience 
    • Cue detection
    • Improve physical fitness
    • Concentration/Selective attention
  • What are the 2 types of feedback?
    • Intrinsic feedback
    • Extrinsic feedback
  • What is terminal feedback?
    Terminal feedback is feedback at the end of the performance it is extrinsic 
  • What is concurrent feedback?
    Feedback during a movement it is intrinsic 
  • The right side of the heart pumps blood where?
    To the lungs
  • Why is the wall of the left ventricle thicker?
    because the left side of the heart has to pump blood around the body which requires a more forceful contraction
  • What is the purpose of the atrioventricular valves?
    to prevent back flow of blood into the atria
  • Where does blood go after it leaves the left atrium?
    It goes to the left atrium 
  • What is the name of the group of cells which initiate the heart beat?
    The SA node
  • The period where the heart is at rest is called what?
  • What happens during the P wave?
    the SA node fires causing the atria to contract and forcing the blood into the ventricles
  • What is the job of the AV node?
    To spread the impulse the walls of the ventricles 
  • Describe the end systolic volume  
    The volume of blood remaining in the ventricles after contraction 
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