Samenvatting Essentials out of the course

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Dit is de samenvatting van het boek "Essentials out of the course". De auteur(s) van het boek is/zijn Eden. Deze samenvatting is geschreven door studenten die effectief studeren met de studietool van Study Smart With Chris.

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Samenvatting - Essentials out of the course

  • 3 Media choose

  • Uses and Gratifications
    This approach identifies media ue as an activity that is performed on the basis of individuals felt needs and the expected gratifications that are thought to be enjoyed when these needs are met. Generally research focuss on affects-related variables. 
  • Mood Management
    MMT proposes that one primary motivation for media-choice behaviors is the regulation of moods, with individuals choices reflecting hedonistic motivations. MMT also suggest that individuals are not cognitively aware from their media choice (as is assumed in Uses and gratifications)
  • Affect as information
    affective states have informational value for individuals, with negative states signifying that the individual should attend carefully to the situation so as to alleviate or address the presumed problem giving rise to the state, and positive state signifying that "all is well" and one can continue with one's normal functioning. 
  • Affective forecasting
    People fail at giving a good predicting on how they will feel in the future, and therefore they do engage in activities that may not help achieve the best feelings in the feature. 
  • Conclusion
    By changing the conceptualization of affect, we may be in a stronger position to examine how media entertainment can not only serve our needs for enjoyment, but also our needs for greater insight, feelings of meaningfulness and contemplation of human poginancies. 
  • 3.2 LaRose

  • Neural origins of media habits

    The neurological role of habit is to protect individuals from being overwhelmed when processing information about routine activities. Certain cognitive and behavioral tasks are assigned to nonconscious, automatic processes so that attention may be focused on more relevant stimuli.

  • A context-dependent theory of habits
    Context stability thus emerged as a defining characteristic
    of habits from this perspective, in which habitual behaviors are triggered
    by environmental cues.
  • A goal-direct approach of habits
    habits as goal-directed, proposing that people initially engage in thoughtful behavior to obtain a goal but that the frequent association of a goal, the action that attains it, and the situation in which it occurs create a habit. Priming of the goal then activates the habit. Habits are thus cognitive structures.
  • Definition of media habits
    ‘‘Habits are a form of automaticity in responding that develops as people repeat actions in stable circumstances’’
  • Four dimension of automaticy:
    Lack of awareness, attention, intentionality and controllability.
    They do not have to be present in the same ratio, you may score high on awareness but low on controllability, etc. 
  • Stable circumstances in habits:
    Context stability > context triggers habit
    Goal stability > goal triggers habit
  • 3.3 Sheets

  • Assumptions of Uses and Gratifications
    1. The audience is conceived as active
    2. Audience can link needs sought and gratifications obtained from media
    3. The media compete with other sources of need satisfaction
    4. Self report data are a valid way to investigate needs and gratifications
    5. Individual values > cultural values
  • SE/MMT assumptions (impulse)
    People make choices on impulse
    • Mood is a major determinant
    • Mood states are influenced by environment
    • Environments can be controlled
    • Media environments are very easy to control
  • SE/MMT assumptions (other)
    • Based on the pleasure principle > People want to maximize pleasure and minimize pain
    • People arrange environment to meet goals > Media are often used for this
    • Learned reward leads to future media choice
  • four key components of SET/MMT
    Excitatory homeostasis
    Intervention potential (distraction/absorption)
    Message behavioral-affinity (semantic)
    Hedonic valence
  • Excitatory homeostatis
    We choose entertainment to obtain an optimal level of arousal
  • Intervention potential of message
    Message's ability to attract our attention away from something else and hold it.

    In bad moods, we should seek high intervention potential (to change bad mood)
    In good moods, should seek low intervention potential (to perpetuate good mood)
  • Hedonic affinity of message (valance)
    Similarity in positive/negative nature of a message
    • High hedonic affinity has low intervention potential (prolonges)
    • Low hedonic affinity has high intervention potential (change)
  • Behavioral affinity of message (semantic)
    Similarity between content and life events
    • High message affinity has low intervention potential (prolonges)
    • Low message affinity has high intervention potential (Change)
  • Lewis & Tamborini, 2012
    When media message is negative or conflicting people deliberate about how they feel about it. 
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Media violence
Tamborini (2010) morality results:
Moral judgement trends towards conventional morality with prolonged soap opera exposure.
Kohlberg three stages of moral maturity
  • Pre-conventional (obedience/self interest)
  • Conventional (conformity, authority)
  • Post-conventional (Social contract/universal ethical principles
Beliefs about the rightness or wrongness of behavior
Moral reasoning
ability to articulate reasons for moral decision making
Moral Judgement
Ability to make ethical choices when presented with a moral dilemma
Two perspectives in emotion research

  1. Hedonistic perspectives prevail. (MMT, Idenitifcation, Affect disposition)
  2. Eudaimonic perspectives new (meaningfullness)

is a quick (automatic) response that something is good or bad, liked or disliked (cf. valence: positive or negative direction of feeling)
is a feeling state that is not clearly linked to some event.
is a conscious evaluative response to some event. A powerful and clearly unified feeling state, such as anger or joy, guilt, shame.