Samenvatting Ethnicity and Nationalism

ISBN-10 0745330428 ISBN-13 9780745330426
153 Flashcards en notities
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Dit is de samenvatting van het boek "Ethnicity and Nationalism". De auteur(s) van het boek is/zijn Thomas Hylland Eriksen. Het ISBN van dit boek is 9780745330426 of 0745330428. Deze samenvatting is geschreven door studenten die effectief studeren met de studietool van Study Smart With Chris.

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Samenvatting - Ethnicity and Nationalism

  • 1 What is Ethnicity?

  • Dit boek zal laten zien hoe sociale antropologie licht kan werpen op concrete kwesties van etniciteit; wat voor vragen sociale antropologen vragen in relatie tot etnische verschijnselen, en hoe ze doorgaan  om ze te beantwoorden.
  • identity (psychology)
    located in the deep unconcious as a durable and persistent sense of sameness of the self
    innerchangeable inner core
  • Dit inleidende hoofdstuk zal de belangrijkste concepten presenteren die zullen worden gebruikt door het boek.

    Het onderzoekt ook hun onduidelijkheden en introduceert daarbij sommige voornaamste theoretische kwesties.

  • social scientists: identity
    involves a link between the personal and the social
    is relational and contectual
    is socially constructed
    requires active engagement (identify with someone)
    requires awareness and choice
    structure (ascribed identity)
    agency (chosen identity)
    no perfect fit between how we see ourselves and how others ee us
    symbols and representation are important in sharing identities
    differences are the basis for identification
    people can have multiple at the same time
    it is rather a process than fixed
    it can change over time
  • race
    is not a scientific term because it is not genetic
    it exists as a cultural construct
    it is based on the assumption that personlaity is linked with physical characteristics
    it is socially important because there is a notion it exists
  • ethnicity
    ethnic relations emerge and are made relevant through social situations and encounters
    it has to do with the classification of people and group characteristics
  • critique on talking about race
    there are no fixed boundaries (interbreeding)
    the distrubution of physical traits does not follow clear boundaries either
  • banton: race and ethnicity
    race: negative group categorisation
    ethnicity: positive group identification
  • New racism
    talks of cultural differences instead of inherited characteristics
    but used for the same purpose:
    justify hierarchical ordering of groups in society
  • ethnicity is wider than race
    because it also deals with cultural differences
  • analytical concepts versus native ones

    etic to the analysts point of view, the scientist/researcher. These concepts are adopted by the larger society.


  • chicago school
    american melting pot studies (urban studies, ecology of the city)
    how it could be that ethnic groups remained distinctive in american cities?
    cultural difference in physical space segregation
    race relations cycle: isolation, competition, conflit, acculturation and assimilation

    conclusion: groups differences may be as well reduced as accentuated in situations of contact (Bateson)

    Park: every society more or lese a melting pot, acculturation.. but group mobility also leads to tensions on the social ladder

    predicted the demise of ethnicity
    therefore emperically wrong
  • manchester school
    copperbelt studies - a mining area of central africa



    q  Retribalisation (J. C. Mitchell):

    The author states that the process of retribalizatio holds that tribal governments are reclaiming identity to get land and subsitence resources.

    q  Detribalisation (G. Wilson)

    Moving from rural to urban held detribalization because urbanization had a real influence on rural life. The ones moving, their tribal bond became less important being superseded by class or workplace affiliations.

  • critique on park (chicago school)
    simplicity: rural versus urban
    egalitarianis: rural
    inevitable conformity: rural

  • stereotyping
    the process of the creation and consistent application of standardized notions of cultural distinctiveness of a group
    - help ordering the socially complex universe
    - can justify privileges and differences in acces to resources
    - are crucial in defining the boundaries of one's own group
    they can also function as selfulfilling prophecies
    can be morally ambiguous and contested by different parties
    do not have to be shared by everyone
  • folk taxonomy
    naming system is the practice of classification. Hierarchical categorizing of ethnic groups. The one closer to you are more detailed. It is subjective and not universal. 
  • contrasting/matching
    ways of expressing distinctivenes
    matching stresses equality, it is about complementing each other, we-you, interdependency, a ahred field for interethnic discourse
    contasting is about highlighting the differences between groups, us-them (dichomatisation = Eidheim)
  • matching can lead to..
    minorities establishing an ideology of complementarity to negotiate on qual footing
    dominant groups can also speak of complementarity to justify exploitation and discriminating
  • ethnic stigma
    stigma = slechte reputatie
    ethnic relations are often hierarchical relations
    a-symmetrical regarding acces to power
    stigmatiseren : hierarchically defined processes of signification
  • assimilation
    adapting to the dominant values in society
    a way to remove stigma
    but loss of ethic differences
  • barth: constructural view
    the focus of research should be not on the cultural stuff inside but the boundaries. ethnic groups are not cultural units
    in social interaction differences arise
    bart: ethnicity are categorical ascriptions which lassify individuals in terms of their basic most general identity
    so disconuity between groups is not cultural but social as it arises out of social interaction
  • critique on the view as cultural units
    - cultural uniqueness presupposes groups tend to be isolated
    - imply maintainence of ethnic boundaries is unproblematic
  • ethnic boundaries
    focus on the relationship between groups, they do not contain cultures. boundaries are two way, demarcate identity and distinctiveness vis a vis the other. variable importance. can function as ascriptions to classify people or can structure crucial aspects of a persons life like IRA
  • theory of plural societies: furnivall and smith
    wrote on colonies
    objective approach
    ethnicity is..
    - identifiable difference
    - independent variable
    - influenced by structure
    - cannot be chosen
    the only thing groups had in common was the political and economical system
    plural societies are unstable because they lack a common will (smith)
    society is then viewd as a unit of disparate parts

  • critique on social constructivism
    then you only study people's perceptions of culture (subjective) and not their real actions
  • relation ethnicity and identity
    both are socially constructen
    ethnicity is blood, birth, culture, place, language, etc. it is part of your identity
  • friedman: modernity
    cultural fragmentation and modernist homogenization not two opposing views but two constitutice trend of global reality
  • eriksens definition of ethnicity
    - as an aspect of a relationship between agents who consider themselves culturally distinct with whom they have interaction (constructivist and subjective)
    - it is characterised by metaphoric or fictive kinship and can be defined as identity
    - refers to aspects op both gain and loss and to aspects of meaning in the creation of identity. political aspects as wel als symbolic (meaningful) one
    - ethnic groups ten to have myths of common origin and have ideologies encouraging endogamy and a strong feeling of historical continuity
  • most scholars agree on ethnicity as..
    - seperate community based on a distinctive culture
    - characterised by kinship relations
    - has a common origin/history/tradition
    - is relational and situational (contextual)
  • horizontal connectedness
    refers to income
    horizontal comradeship is no class distinguishing as in nationalism
  • inclusion and exclusion
    self identification / ascribed status
    agency / structure
    matching / contrasting (dichotimatization)
    undercommunication . overcommunication 

  • gramsci - cultural hegemony
    talks about the role of ideas concerning power. 
    notion of cultural hegemony:
    minority take over the ideolofy and values and norms of the majority. Symbolic power (like education, etc). They internalize this unequal power distribution. this can be a reason why the people dd not unite for a recolution. consent in the subordinate structure!

  • positive contributions by the chicago school
    - fludiity and dynamics of ethnic relations
    - relevance of ethnicity varies situationally and is contextual
    - ethnic identities can be manipulated
  • positive contributions by the manchester school
    - retribalisation: reclaiming identity
    - detribalisation: tribal bons becoming less important
    - overcommunication
    - undercommunication
    - organization of new subsystems based on ethnic membership
  • relation between ethnicity and culture Barth
    - the social organisation of a group is more important than culture, it is about the boundaries
    -  cultural differences can be the consequences of boundaries instead of the cause
    - only when cultural differeces are considered important they matter in differentiation
    - ethnic boundaries are social boundaries
  • eriksen relation between ethnicity and culture
    - ethnic boundaries do not necessarily correspond with cultural boundaries
    - ethnicity is the enduring and systematic communication of cultural differences between groups
    -ethnic groups are not perse cultural groups
    - ethnicity is relational and situational 
  • benhabib said..
    culture has become a synonym for identity
    - culture presents itself through narratively contested accounts (some more dominant then others)
    - observers should never take those accounts for true
    - scholars need to take the totality of circumstances of which cultures are aspects into account> context
    - cultures are constant creations, recreations and negotiations of imaginary boundaries between groups
  • anomalie
    the offspring of mixed couple
    belongs to several ethnic groups
    usually low status

  • digital and analog
    digital: all outsiders are the same, there is no differences
    analog: principles of inclusion and exclusion allow some differences of degree
  • dominant discourse
    how most people talk, gets a lot of attention
  • hegemonic discourse
    - dominant notions that are commonly accepted and widely shared and even internalized by inferior groups
    - taken for granted, seems natural
    negative and positice stereotypes internalized like notions of beauty
  • ethnicity by eriksen (again)
    - notions of common ancestry and origin
    - as well symbolic as political (instrumental) one
    - aspect of a relationship of people who consider themselves culturally different
    - social relation based on fictive kinship (notions of blood)
  • ember and ember, culture is..
    - despite individual differences members of a particular society share many behaviors and ideas that constitute their culture
    - may be defined as the learnbed behaviour and ideas 
    - is always changing although we imagine it to be fixed
  • spradley and mccurdy, culture is..
    the learned and shared knowledhe that people use to generate behavior and interpret experiences
    includes both tacit (you are not aware of) and explicit knowledge
  • smith and furnivall say
    cultural differences provide the foundation of distinctiveness
    groups are united in an economic system
  • critique on furnivall and smith
    - ethnic groups presented as static, takes not change into account
    - reification of culture (seeing cultures as fixed and closed systems, making something abstact in something concrete, making it a thing)
  • reductionist sociology of culture (criticised by benhabib)
    - cultures are clearly delineable wholes
    - cultures are congruent with population groups and a non controversial discription is possible
    - politics or policies are not hindered by the fact that culture and groups may not stand in a one-to-one relationship

  • identity politics
    using identity and culture as a marker for political purposes and political mobilization
  • mosaic multiculturalism
    groups are clearly identifiable entities that coexist. 
  • democratic theorist
    preferred by benhabib
    interested in public manifestations of cultural identities
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Laatst toegevoegde flashcards

why do people choose to... perception from the native's point of view
outsiders point of view
structural approach
observable characteristics
native/analytical concepts

These concepts are not the same. There are often discrepancies between what people say and what they do, and there will nearly always be discrepancies between informants' descriptions (native, emic) of their society and the anthropologist's description (analytic, etic) of the same society.

Native = day to day, actor's terms, emic

Analytial= anthropologists terms, scientific, etic

methodological nationalism shows..
that objective theory harbors a political position
takes borders of the state for granted and therefore contributes to the reproduction of state projects
migrant aspirations influence local lifes
- educational choices
- refusal to take traditional jobs
- marriage market (definition of a good catch changed)
universalist moral
inclusion, equal rights for everybody
process of maintaining networks and becoming linked to an institution
culturele vermening, dubbele identiteiten, no fixed boundaries
inspired by european colonialism
main enemy is islam
family as key institution
result of modernication
reaction towards egalitarianism
uncentralized religion