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Samenvatting - Export management (english edition) a european perspective
1.1 Export in the context of developments in the world economy
In the World Economic Outlook, who were still the dominant influences on the economic prospects of the rest of the world, according to the IMF's semi-annual forecast for the world economy (2006-2007)?
Is the internationalization in Europe slowing down since the credit crunch (kredietcrisis)?
No, it is progressing within Europe in particular.
For what part of world trade is the EU responsible?1/5
Who remain the Netherlands' favourite trading partners, despite of the recession?1. Germany
3. UK & France5. Spain
Top five countries for expected growth in export turnover within the EU:
Through which major hubs of Dutch logistical activity is effected a significant proportion of international trade?
- The ports of Rotterdam & Amsterdam
- Schiphol airport
What percentage of the Dutch export finds its destination within the EU member states?70%
Which markets are growing markets outside the EU?1. China2. Russia3. Brazil4. India5. USA
The Netherlands is an important global player both in ... and ...1. International commodity trade2. Providing international services
What are considered to be the key factors of the Dutch in the export market?
* The positive image of Dutch products
- Increased sales efforts (with the aid of more export staff or more agents and/or dealers)
- Improved economic situation
- Better product range
- Increase in selling price
- Establishing own sales office
Factors that strongly influence the export situation:
- The cost of products and wages in the Netherlands
- Protectionism outside the EU
- Administrative costs
- Extent of product range, level of entrepreneurship and knowledge of foreign languages
- Product innovation
- Having a good local partner abroad
- Training of export staff
What does IMF stand for and what do they do?
It stands for International Monetary Fund and it is the watchdog of the national financial systems. It tests them regularly for their 'financial health'.
1.2 A more detailed definition of exporting and the Dutch situation in respect of export
What name would represent the Netherlands better than 'export country'?Trading country or distribution country
1.2.1 Exportation, re-importation, re-exportation and transit
What does exportation mean?It means that commodities originating in a country leave the country physically and are sold abroad by a resident of that country; or that commidites leave the country again after having been processed.
Of which elements does export exist and what's the difference?
- Exportation (export of goods manufactured in one country)
- Re-importation (import of goods that are previously exported that underwent an added-value abroad (e.g. metal products))
- Re-exportation (exportation of imports with little added value (usually flowers))
- Transit (foreign goods arriving in the Netherlands and remain the property of its foreign owner (e.g. container transport)
Which element of export is especially important for the Netherlands?Re-importation
1.2.2 International trade
What is the defenition of international trade?International trade comprises all exchange of goods and services which cross national boundaries.
Laatst toegevoegde flashcards
- EXW (Ex Works)
- FCA (Free Carrier)
- FOB (Free on Board)
- CFR (Cost and Freight)
- CIF (Cost, Insurance and Freight)
- CPT (Carriage Paid To)
- DDU (Delivered Duty Unpaid)
- Indirect export
- Direct export
- Cooperative export
- Hermin: shortfall in demand and inadequacy of supply (investment in infrastructure)
- Quest II: in respect of the supply side of the economy only (subsidies for investment and R&D)
- PHARE (Poland and Hungary Assistance for the Reconstruction of the Economy)
This programme was introduced in support of reforms in Poland and Hungary. Countries which joined later were:
- Czech Republic
- Republic of Slovakia
(JOP = Joint Venture PHARE Programme)
This programme is designed to encourage joint ventures in Central and Eastern Europe.)
- TACIS (Technical Assistence for Commonwealth of Independent States)
The programme was introduced in order to transfer Western know-how to candidate Member States. The aim is to create conditions which encourage private investment and thus stimulate the development of democracy and the market economy.
- ECIP & JEV (European Community Investment Partners & Joint European Venture)
The EU stimulates European companies to establish joint ventures with companies from developing countries.
To make government contracts accessible to all companies established in the EU.
The participating countries impose a common tariff on outside countries.
GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade)
- The theory ignores the stages of the economic cycles of the countries. It also ignores the difference in culture and religion.
- The theory sets great store by the effects of comparative costs and no allowance is made for the limitations of these effects.
- Developing countries argue that international free trade discriminates against them (developing countries are for instance forced to specialize in agriculture and western countries specialize in technology; this will increase the gap between rich and poor).