Samenvatting Games and Information An Introduction to Game Theory

ISBN-10 1405136669 ISBN-13 9781405136662
226 Flashcards en notities
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Dit is de samenvatting van het boek "Games and Information An Introduction to Game Theory". De auteur(s) van het boek is/zijn Eric Rasmusen. Het ISBN van dit boek is 9781405136662 of 1405136669. Deze samenvatting is geschreven door studenten die effectief studeren met de studietool van Study Smart With Chris.

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Samenvatting - Games and Information An Introduction to Game Theory

  • 1.1 Definitions

  • What are the essential elements of a game?
     players, actions, payoffs, andinformation— PAPI
  • Describe nature
    Nature is a pseudo-player who takes random actions at specified points in the game with specified probabilities.
  • 1.2 Dominated and dominated strategies: the prisoners dilemma

  • Describe a dominated strategy
    The strategy sd i is a dominated strategy if it is strictly inferior to some other strategy no matter what strategies the other players choose, in the sense that whatever strategies they pick, his payoff is lower with s
  • Describe a dominant strategy
    The strategy s∗ i is a dominant strategy if it is a player’s strictly best response to any strategies the other players might pick, in the sense that whatever strategies they pick, his payoff is highest with s∗
  • Describe the prisoners dilemma
    Whenever you observe individuals in a conflict that hurts them all, your first thought should be of the Prisoner’s Dilemma.
  • Describe a cooperative game
    A cooperative game is a game in which the players can make binding commitments, as opposed to anoncooperative game, in which they cannot.
  • 1.3 Iterated dominance: the battle of the bismarck see

  • Describe a weakly dominated strategy
    Strategy s0 i is weakly dominated if there exists some other strategy s00 i for player i which is possibly better and never worse, yielding a higher payoff in some strategy profile and never yielding a lower payoff.
  • Describe an iterated dominance equilibrium
    An iterated dominance equilibrium is a strategy pro file found by deleting a weakly dominated strategy from the strategy set of one of the players, recalculating to find which remaining strategies are weakly dominated, deleting one of them, and continuing the process until only one strategy remains for each player.
  • Describe a zero-sum game
    A zero-sum game is a game in which the sum of the payoffs of all the players is zero whatever strategies they choose. A game which is not zero-sum is nonzero-sum game or variable- sum.
  • 1.4 Nash equilibrium

  • When is there a nash equilibrium
    The strategy pro file s∗ is a Nash equilibrium if no player has incentive to deviate from his strategy given that the other players do not deviate.
  • Describe a battle of the sexes game
    The third game we will use to illustrate Nash equilibrium is the Battle of the Sexes, a conflict between a man who wants to go to a prizefight and a woman who wants to go to a ballet. While selfish, they are deeply in love, and would, if necessary, sacrifice their preferences to be with each other.
  • Describe the coordination game
    coordination games, which share the common feature that the players need to coordinate on one of multiple Nash equilibria. Ranked Coordination has the additional feature that the equilibria can be pareto ranked.
  • 2.1 The strategic and extensive form of a game

  • The strategic or normal form consists of:
    All possible strategy profiles
    payoff function mapping
  • 2.3 perfect, certain, symmetric and complete information

  • Describe a perfect game
    Each information set is a singleton
  • Describe a certain game
    Nature does not move first after any players moves
  • Describe a symmetric game
    No player has information different from other players when he moves, or at the end nodes
  • Describe a complete game
    Nature does not move first or her initial move is observed by every player
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