Samenvatting Geneeskunde Gray's anatomy

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Samenvatting - Geneeskunde Gray's anatomy

  • 1.2.1 skeletal

  • The subgroups of the skeleton:
    • Axial skeleton 
      • skull
      • vertebral column
      • ribs
      • sternum
    • appendicular skeleton 
      • bones of upper + lower limbs 
  • Wat is cartilage (vertaling)?
  • Wat is cartilage?
    Avasculare Connective tissue (geen bloed toevoer)
    Bestaat uit:
    • extracellular fibers 
  • De voedingsstoffen voor Cartilage gaan door diffusie and has no blood vessels, lymphatics, or nerves.
  • The amount and kind of extracellular fibers in the matrix varies depending on the type of cartilage.
  • Wat zijn de functies van cartilage?

    • support soft tissues, 
    • provide a smooth, gliding surface for bone articulations at joints
    • enable the development and growth of long bones.
  • Welke typen kraakbeen zijn er?
    1. hyaline
      • most common 
      • on surface of bones
    2. elastic 
      • e.g. external ear 
    3. fibrocartilage
      • e.g. intervertebral discs
  • Waar bestaat hyaline cartilage uit?
     matrix contains a --> moderate amount of collagen fibers
  • Waar bestaat elastic cartilage uit?
    matrix contains--> collagen fibers along + large number of elastic fibers 
  • Waar bestaat fibrocartilage uit?
    Matrix contains--> limited number of cells + substantial amount of collagen fibers 
  • Wat zijn de functies van botten?
    1. supportive structures for the body
    2. beschermen van vital organs, 
    3. reservoir voor calcium + fosfor
    4. levers on which muscles act to produce movement 
    5. containers for blood-producing cells.
  • Welke soorten botten zijn er?
    • Compact
    • spongy
  • Wat is compact bone?
    • Dense bone 
    • that forms the outer shell of all bones
    • surrounds spongy bone.
  • Wat is spongy bone?
    •  bestaat uit spicules of bone (A thin island of developing bone)
    • omgeeft beenmerg (containing blood-forming cells)
  • Welke soorten botten zijn er? (classified in shape?)
    • Long bones are tubular (e.g., humerus in upper limb; femur in lower limb). 
    • Short bones are cuboidal (e.g., bones of the wrist and ankle). 
    • Flat bones consist of two compact bone plates separated by spongy bone (e.g., skull). 
    • Irregular bones are bones with various shapes (e.g., bones of the face). 
    • Sesamoid bones are round or oval bones that develop in tendons.
  • Bones are vascular and are innervated
  • Hoe komen botten aan voedingsstoffen?
    • van een aangrenzende slagader/ artery 
    • 1 artery per bot
    • artery enters internal cavity --> supplies all layers of the bone
  • What area of the bone is not covered externally?
    The area of the joint--> hier zit articular cartilage
  • Wat is het periosteum?
    • De membrane that covers the outer surface of all bones
  • Wat is de functie van het periosteum?
    Het kan nieuw bot vormen
  •  A bone stripped of its periosteum will not survive
  • Wat zijn joints? (vertaling)
  • Wat zijn joints?
    De plek waar 2 skeletal elements samen komen
  • Welke soort joint zijn er?
    • Synovial joints 
    • solid joints
  • Wat zijn Synovial joints?
    joints waarbij de Skeletal elements are separated by a narrow cavity
  • Wat zijn solid joints?
    Joins waarbij er geen cavity is + het wordt samen gehouden door connective tissue
  • Bony surfaces normally do not contact one another
  • Wat zijn de layers van synovial joints?
    1. Hyaline cartilage 
    2. joints capsule
      1. inner synovial membrane
      2. outer fibrous membrane
    3. ds
  • Wat zijn de soorten specific synovial joints?
    • Plane joints—
      • allow sliding or gliding movements when one bone moves across the surface of another (e.g., acromioclavicular joint) 
    • Hinge joints—
      • allow movement around one axis that passes transversely through the joint; permit flexion and extension (e.g., elbow [humero-ulnar] joint) 

    • Pivot joints
      • allow movement around one axis that passes longitudinally along the shaft of the bone; permit rotation (e.g., atlanto-axial joint) 

    • Bicondylar joints
      • allow movement mostly in one axis with limited rotation around a second axis; formed by two convex condyles that articulate with concave or flat surfaces (e.g., knee joint) 
    • Condylar (ellipsoid) joints—
      • allow movement around two axes that are at right angles to each other; permit flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, and circumduction (limited) (e.g., wrist joint) 
    • Saddle joints—
      • allow movement around two axes that are at right angles to each other; the articular surfaces are saddle shaped; permit flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, and circumduction (e.g., carpometacarpal joint of the thumb) 
    • Ball and socket joints—
      • allow movement around multiple axes; permit flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction, and rotation (e.g., hip joint)
  • Wat zijn de verschillende solid joints?
    Fibrous joints
    •   Sutures  occur only in the skull where adjacent bones are linked by a thin layer of connective tissue termed a  sutural ligament  
    • Gomphoses  occur only between the teeth and adjacent bone. In these joints, short collagen tissue fibers in the periodontal ligament run between the root of the tooth and the bony socket. 
    • Syndesmoses  are joints in which two adjacent bones are linked by a ligament. Examples are the ligamentum flavum, which connects adjacent vertebral laminae, and an interosseous membrane, which links, for example, the radius and ulna in the forearm.

    Cartilaginous joints
    • Synchondroses  occur where two ossification centers in a developing bone remain separated by a layer of cartilage, for example, the growth plate that occurs between the head and shaft of developing long bones. These joints allow bone growth and eventually become completely ossified. 
    • Symphyses  occur where two separate bones are interconnected by cartilage. Most of these types of joints occur in the midline and include the pubic symphysis between the two pelvic bones, and intervertebral discs between adjacent vertebrae.
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Laatst toegevoegde flashcards

Wat zijn kenmerken van smooth muscles?
  • absence of stripes
  • consists of elongated or spindle-shaped fibers
  • capable of slow and sustained contractions
  • is found in the walls of blood vessels (tunica media)
  • associated with hair follicles in the skin, located in the eyeball, and found in the walls of various structures associated with the gastrointestinal, respiratory, genitourinary, and urogenital systems
  • Smooth muscle is innervated by visceral motor nerves.
Wat zijn kenmerken van cardiac muscles?
  • striated muscle found only in the walls of the heart (myocardium) and in some of the large vessels close to where they join the heart
  • consists of a branching network of individual cells linked electrically and mechanically to work as a unit
  • contractions are less powerful than those of skeletal muscle
  • is resistant to fatigue
  • is innervated by visceral motor nerves.
Wat zijn de kenmerken van skeletal muscles?
  • majority of the muscle tissue in the body
  • consists of :
    • parallel bundles of long, multinucleated fibers 
    • with transverse stripes
  • capable of powerful contractions
  • is innervated by somatic and branchial motor nerves.
  • used to move bones and other structures
  • provides support and gives form to the body
Welke soorten muscles zijn er?
  • skeletal muscle
  • Smooth muscle
  • cardiac muscle
Welke soorten bindweefsels/ fascia zijn er?
  • Superfacial fascia
  • deep fascia
Wat zijn de functies van bindweefsel?
  • separate organs
  • support organs
  • interconnect organs
  • enable movements (of one structure relative to another)
Wat is fascia?
  • Connective tissue
  • met variërende hoeveelheid vet
Wat is fascia? (vertaling)
Wat zijn de functies van de huid?
  1. Mechanical+ permeabele barriere
  2. sensory organ
  3. thermoregulator
  4. initiate primary immune respons
Wat zijn de kenmerken van de epidermis?
  • outer cellular layer 
  • bestaat uit gestratificeerd plaveiselepitheel
  • avascular 
  • varies in thickness