Samenvatting geschiedenis werkplaats

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Samenvatting - geschiedenis werkplaats

  • 1.1 the beautiful age

  • When were the first modern olympic games held?
    in 1896, April 6
  • When was the beautiful age?
    the period between 1890 and 1914
  • Why did people believe that that life was perfect?
    factories made everything
    new inventions
    quick transport 
  • But this 'new brave world'  also had dark sides, what were those dark sides?
    Explain that it contained the seeds for WW1
    New weapons created: machine gun, tank, gas
                                          ---> arms race (wapenwedloop)
                                         --->  militarism- countires were proud of their big armies, their society becomes more of a military structure
    Nationalism was blooming: envy and tension
    Railroads made it easy to transport armies
  • How had the countries prepared for years?
    the arms race (building up huge armies)
    creating military alliances ( bondgenootschhappen)
    making invasion plans --> like Von Schlieffen Plan 
  • What were the military alliances?
    - central powers (GER/AUS)
    -the allies (FR/UK/RUS)
  • Find three indirect reasons for reinstating the Olympics?
    - New transport made it possible for large parts of the world to join in the competitions
    - Because of work in factories the people had become more interested in sports as a distraction
    - Because of nationalism countries were very much keen on international competitions and sports played an important part in the training of boys for the military.
  • Every time tells its own histories” means:
    History is the practice where man reflects on the past. Every time (age) consists of its own preoccupations. Those preoccupations man uses to reflect on the past. Thus every time tells its own histories about the past.
  • How did people think of the period 1890-1914 when they were living in it?
    Generally they thought is was a ok time to live in. There was development in all kinds of technologies and even workers profited from them. Although you had to work very long days for relatively small pay.
  • La Belle Epoque is a good example of “every time tells its own histories”. Every, why?
    La Belle Epoque is a good example of “every time tells its own histories”. Every time tells its own histories means that every period reflects on the past differently according to its preoccupations. This is shown in la belle epoque because the story told about that time differs between the period before and after the war. This is because of the preoccupation after the war, with the war. So the war became the “glasses” through which people looked back at the time before the war. And then it appeared as ever so beautiful.
  • Why was time standardized in 19th century? 
    Because the new railroad system needed a uniform time system for their arrival and departure scedules.
  • Why do you think Dutch first adopted greenwhich mean time?
    Back then the Dutch were more oriented on Great-Brittain because of their cooperation in the colonies in East-Asia
  • 1.2 WW1

  • What did the multi-ethnic empire of Austria-Hungary cause?
    Many of its people wanted independence, so there was lots of tension. 
  • What happened because of that?
    In June, the Austrian crown prince went on a visit to Sarajevo. There he was shot by a Serbian nationalist
    The killer fled to Serbia and Austria demanded him back. When Serbia said 'no'war was in the air....
  • The militairy- alliances started to act, causing a domino effect? What was it?
    --> one nation pulled another into the war

    June 28th -> Austrian crown prince murdered, diplomacy fails
    July 28th -> Austria declares war on Serbia , Russia threatens Austria
    Aug 1 st -> Germany declares war on Russia and demands France to stay out
    Aug 3rd -> Germany declares war on France
    Aug 4th -> Germany invades Belgium (SchlieffenPlan) and France
    Uk declares war on the Central Powers
    WW1 has begun....
  • Why does the whole world become involved?
    All countries use men and material from their colonies.
  • What was the Schlieffen Plan ?
    First, the Germans would surprise the French by invading France via Belgium. Within 40 days they would defeat France and then the troops could be moved eastward to deal with Russia. 
  • Why did it fail?
    at the last moment, the French were able to halt them.
  • What did they do?
    The armies on the  Western Front got  stuck as they cannot defeat each other.
    The soldiers go 'underground' to protect themselves. They dig trenches. Here they live, fight suffer and die for four years. 
  • Why was WW1 the bloodiest and most traumatic war ever?
    - New weapons of mass destruction ( machine gun, gas, flame throwers)
    -Old war tactics (chááárge!!!)
    -Huge armies with endless weapons (factories)
    -Life in the trenches was a nightmare (copses, rats, filth, fear)
  • What did many soldiers get?
    shellshock -> they went mad with fear
    Officers and doctors did not recognize this ailment
  • What did some others do?
    they wounded themselves to get out of the trenches. These soldiers were shot as cowards...
  • What happened in 1917?
    the US joined the allies on the western front
  • What happened that same year?
    two revolutions happened in Russia, after which a peace-treaty was signed with the Central Powers. 
  • Why did this peace came too late?
    in October/November 1918 riots broke out all over Germany. The emperor had to flee.
  • When did the war end?
    in November 11 1918
  • How was A-H punished?
    it was broken up into many small countries
  • When was the peace-Treaty of Versailles signed??
    in 1919
  • Germany was punished the hardest, what was written in this treaty? 
    -Germany gets the blame for the outbreak of the war
    - huge war reparations 
    - territorial -> Poland
    -Army of max 100.000 men
    - Occupation of the Rhineland (heavy industry!)
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Laatst toegevoegde flashcards

Was the league of nations able to solve this?
No, from beginning the organisation of nations was powerless, only because German, Russian as well as the US were not in there. 
Where did the peace agreements lead to?
to new tensions and conflicts
Was the right of self-determination applied everywhere?
Which five independent states remained in the former empire of the Czar? 
Poland, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania.
How did the Ottoman Empire fell apart?
-Arab parts became mandated areas of League of Nation, actually France and Great Britian
-The rest split in six parts: Greece Italy, France and Great Britain each got say in part
-east Armenia founded
-Sultan kept north with limited powers
What territories did Austria lose? 
- croats with serbia and later Bosnia: Yoguslavia
-Poled declared republic of Poland
- Czech and Slovaks formed republic of Czechoslovakia
What was founded as part of the Treaty of Versailles?
The league of Nations, the members had to promise to resolve their conflicts in a peaceful manner and by talks.
When way treaty signed?
June 28 1919, 5 year after murder in Sarajevo.
Same location where the Germans had declared their empire 48 years ago: hall of Mirrors at Palace of Versailles 
Why did they eventually signed it?
first they refused but gave in when the Allies threatened to restart war. 
What was written in the treaty of Versailles?
-Germany and allies responsible war
-high reparations for 66 years
-also deliver large amounts machines, ships, coal
-Lost 10% Alsce Lorraine, new state of Poland
-no larger army 100 000 men 
-no aircraft, tans and other heavy weapons
-lost colonies