Samenvatting Human Physiology An Integrated Approach, Global Edition

ISBN-10 129225954X ISBN-13 9781292259543
145 Flashcards en notities
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Dit is de samenvatting van het boek "Human Physiology An Integrated Approach, Global Edition". De auteur(s) van het boek is/zijn Dee Unglaub Silverthorn. Het ISBN van dit boek is 9781292259543 of 129225954X. Deze samenvatting is geschreven door studenten die effectief studeren met de studietool van Study Smart With Chris.

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Samenvatting - Human Physiology An Integrated Approach, Global Edition

  • 0 content questions

  • What prevents electrical signals from passing through the connective tissue from the heart?
    connective tissue is not excitable so is unable to conduct action potentials
  • What enzyme converts ATP to cAMP 2. does cAMP activates?
    Adenylyl cyclase converts ATP
    cAMP activates kinase A
  • Name all four regions of the spinal cord in order starting from the brain stem
    1. Cervical
    2. Thoracic
    3. Lumbar
    4. Sacral
  • A nerve that carries both sensory and motor information are called  ....
    Mixed nerves
  • Define homeostasis
    Maintenance of a relative stable internal environment
  • The central nervous system consist of the .... And the ....
    Brain and spinal cord
  • The afferent division of the nervous system has what two components?
    Sensory receptors and sensory neurons
  • Name the membrane transport process by which glucose moves from the extracellular fluid into the cell
    Facilitated transport
  • How can one chemical signal have opposite effects in two different tissues?
    A signal can have opposite effects by using different receptors or signal pathways
  • What is the different between tonic control and antagonistic control?
    Tonic control involves one control system, antagonistic control usually uses two
  • What do enzymes, receptors and transporters have in common that explains why they all exhibt saturation, specifity and competition?
    They are al proteins
  • Match the communication method on the left with its property on the right: 
    a. Autocrine signal                                1. Electrical communication
    b. Cytokine                                             2. Chemical communication
    c. Gap junction                                      3. Both electrical and chemical
    d. Hormone
    e. Neurohormone
    f. Neurotransmitter
    g. Paracrine signal
    1. No matches 
    2. A, b, d, e, f, g 
    3. C
  • Glucose is metabolized to CO2 and water. Explain the effector of glucose metabolism on mass balance in the body
    C02 and H2O is added to body, mass balance is disturbed of the two substances. To maintain the balance both metabolites must be either excreted or further metabolized
  • If a person eats 12 mg of salt in a day and extretes 11 mg if it in the urine, what happened to the remaining 1 mg
    It remains in the body
  • 1 introduction to physiology

  • Plasma cortisol .... In the morning and ... At night
    1. Rises
    2. Drops
  • Body temp. .... During the day and ..... During the night
    1. Rises
    2. Falls
  • 1. Negative feedback loop is ..... Homeostatic
    2. positive feedback loop is ..... Homeostatic
    1. Is homeostatic
    2. Is not homeostatic
  • What are the two loops by reflex control?
    Control loop: stimulus (monitored by sensor) to response
    neg. Feedback loop: response feed back to input portion of the partway (to prevent non-stop response)
  • What is the order in which a local control system happens?
    Input signal --> integrating centre --> output signal --> response
  • Fight-flight response
    Activation of the brain area that releases energy (in form of glucose) substrate and stimulates the cardiovascular system
    - adreneline released
    - sympathetic system activated: glucose and FFAś are used by active muscle
    -  higer bloodpressure and rate
    - reduced immune system
  • Circadian rhythm
    Some form of daily biological rhythm.
    temperature lower in evening
    cortisol concentration higher in morning
  • Feedforward control
    A few reflexes that enable the body to predict that a change is about to occur and start the response loop in anticipation
  • Positive feedback loop
    The response reinforces the stimilus rather than decreasing or removing it. (for example: child birth). Reflex pathways are not homeostatic
  • Negative feedback
    A pathway in which the response opposes or removes the signal. It stabilize the regulated variable and aid in the sytem in maintaining  homeostasis
  • Feedback loop
    The response (from the response loop) feeds back to influence the input portion of the pathways.
  • What is antagonistic control
    Two things/controllers that work in opposition to each other
  • pattern in all Reflex pathways
    Stimulus -> sensor -> input signal -> integrating center -> output signal -> target -> response
  • What three primary components has a response loop?
    Input signal
    integrating center
    output signal
  • Long distance signalingchanges that are widespread throughout the body
    complex control
     physiological reflex: any long distance pathway
  • Local control
    restricted to tissue or cell involved
    acts on cells or tissue nearby the region where the change (in vinicity) took place
  • What are the three components of all control systems?
    1. An input signal
    2. A controller or integrating center (intergrates incoming information and initiates a response
    3.   an output signal that creates a response
  • Setpoint
    Optimal value of a variable
  • What is the goal of homeostasis?
    To maintain the dynamic steady states of the body's compartments (not to make the compartments the same)
  • What is the difference between teleogical approach and mechanistic approach?
    Teleological is why something happens
    mechanistic is how something happens
  • what does Equilibrium imply?
    It implies that the composition of the body compartments is identical.
  • What happens in 'steady state'
    There is no 'net' movement of materials between the compartment
  • Hepatocytes
    Liver cells
  • Mass flow
    The rate of transport of a substance x as is moves through the body fluids or into/out the body
  • Law of mass
    If the amount of a sunstance in the body is to remain constant, any gain must be offset by an equal loss
  • Pathophysiology
    The study of the body functions in a disease state
  • When is a pathological condition the result?
    When the body fails to maintain homeostasis of the critical variables and the normal function is disrupted
  • Homeostasis
    Keeping the internal environment relatively stable
  • Which signals are used by cell-to-cell communication?
    Chemical and electrical signals
  • Emergent properties
    Properties that can't be predicted to exist based only on knowledge og the system's individual components
  • What is physiology?
    The study of normal functioning of a living organism and its component parts
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