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Samenvatting - Integrated principles of zoology
1 Introduction to living animals
Wat is het metabolisme?
Levende organismen blijven zichzelf door het zich opnemen van nutriënten vanuit hun milieu.
What is Zoology
The scientific study of animals
When is a species andromous
When they spend their adult lives at sea but return to freshwater to spawn (salmon)
General properties of living systems
1. chemical uniqueness. Living systems demonstrate a unique and complex molecular organization. There are four major categories of biological macromolecules: Nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids.
2. Complexity and hierarchical organization. Living systems demonstrate a unique and complex hierarchical organization.
3. Reproduction. Living systems can reproduce themselves.
4. Possession of a genetic program. A genetic program provides fidelity of inheritance.
5. Metabolism. Living organisms maintain themselves by acquiring nutrients from their environments.
6. Development. All organisms pass through a characteristic life cycle.
7. Environmental interaction. All animals interact with their environments.
8. Movement. Living systems and their parts show precise and controlled movements arising from within the system.
What is heredity
Heredity is the faithful transmission of traits from parents to offspring, usually at the organismal level.
What is variation
Variation is the production of differences among the traits of different individuals.
What are autotrophs
Organisms that can synthesize their food from inorganic sources using light or another source of energy.
What are heterotrophs
Heterotrophs are organisms lacking the ability to synthesize their food from inorganic sources. They must obtain their food directly from the environment.
What is homology?
The same organ in a different organism under everyvariety of form and function
What is allopatric speciation
If populations are allopatric immediately preceding and during evolution of reproductive barriers between them, you get allopatric speciation, or geographic speciation.
What is vicariant speciation?
Vicariant speciation is initiated when climatic or geological changes fragment a species' habitat, producing impenetrable barriers that separate different populations geographically.
What is a founder event?
A small number of individuals might disperse to a distant place where no other members of their species live. They may establish a new population. This is called a founder event.
What is sympatric speciation
Different individuals within a species become specialized for occupying different components of the environment.
What is parapatric speciation?
Geographically intermediate between allopatric and sympatric speciation. Two species are called parapatric with respect to each other if their geographic ranges are primarily allopatric but make contact along a borderline that neither species successfully crosses.
What is sorting?
The phenomenon of differential survival and reproduction among varying organisms.
What is the typological (morphological) species concept?
One model-species is shown in a museum and new individuals are compared to this one.
What is the biological species concept?
A species is a reproductive community of populations (reproductively isolated from others) that occupies a specific niche in nature.
What is the evolutionary species concept?
A single lineage of ancestor-descendant populations that maintains its identity from other such lineages and that has its own evolutionary tendencies and historical fate.
What is the cohesion species concept?
The most inclusive population of individuals having the potential for phenotypic cohesion through intrinsic cohesion mechanisms
What is the phylogenetic species concept?
Irreducible (basal) grouping of organisms diagnosably distinct from other such groupings and within which there is a parental pattern of ancestry and descent.