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Samenvatting - Intermediate accounting.
1 The Accounting Information System
Hoe ziet de accounting cycle eruit?
4. Statement preparation
Noem alle statements (maakt onderdeel uit van statement preparation).
1. Income statement => verkopen minus kosten
2. Retained Earnings Statement => retained earnings begin - uitkering dividend = retained earnings eind
3. Statement of Financial Position
1.1 Accounting for income taxes
Identify temporary or permanent differences:
The MACRS depreciation system is used for tax purposes, and the straight-line depreciation method is used for financial reporting purposes for some plant assets.
This is a temporary difference that will result in future taxable amounts and, therefore, usually give rise to a deferred income tax liability.
Identify temporary or permanent difference. A landlord collects some rents in advance. Rents received are taxable in the period when they are received.
This is a temporary difference that will result in future deductible amounts.
1.1.1 Book versus tax reporting
Why do companies need to provide financial information?
Companies need to provide financial information to the investment community that provides a clear picture of present and potential tax obligations and tax benefits.
Corporations must file income taxes returns following the guidelines developed by the appropriate taxing authority. So what do they calculate?
They calculate taxes payable based upon tax regulations and income tax expense based upon IFRS. The amount reported as tax expense will often differ from the amount of taxes payable to the tax authority.
Explain straight-line depreciation as well as accelerated depreciation and there connection to book/tax-reporting.
For tax purposes, company uses accelerated depreciation.
For book (IFRS) reporting purposes, company uses straight-line depreciation for fixed assets.
Straight-line depreciation: simpliest and most commonly used method.
Purchase price- salvage value/ total estimated life in years of the item --> constant depreciation expense.
Accelerated depreciation: Write off more in first years and less in last years. Biggest benefit --> tax benefit --> By writing more assets against revenue, companies report lower revenues and thus pay less taxes.
What is accrual accounting?
Records income when it is earned or expenses, when they occured --> when actual transaction completed/item sold/work done, the corresponding amount will appear in the books even though payment has not yet been received.
For financial reporting (book) purposes, companies use accrual accounting.
What is cash-based accounting?
Records revenue when cas is received and records expenses when cash is paid. For tax purposes better, because using accrual accounting you show as if you have earned more than you actually did --> leading to higher revenue, higher taxes!
How are income taxes classified in the balance sheet?
In the balance sheet, income taxes are classified as current liability.
Why do temporary differences occur?
The difference between the amounts can happen when there are temporary differenes between the amounts reported for tax purposes and those reported for book purposes. (Including different use of accrual and cash-based accounting)
Why does management of large listed companies have a high incentive to report IFRS income as high as possible?
Positive effect on bonus
Positive effect on stock price
Positive effect on performance evaluation
At the same time, companies want the tax burden to be as low as possible: report low taxable income; but: less flexibility compared with IFRS reporting.
How would you describe tax-planning-strategy?
An action that meets certain criteria and that a company implements to realize a tax benefit for an operating loss or tax credit carryforward before it expires. Companies consider tax-planning strategies when assessing the need for and amount of a valuation allowance for deferred tax assets.
Identify differences between pretax financial income and taxable income.
Companies compute pretax financial income (or income for book purposes) in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. They compute taxable income (or income for tax purposes) in accordance with prescribed tax regulations.
Differences may exist for example, in the timing of revenue recognition and the timing of expense recognition.
Laatst toegevoegde flashcards
Unintentional mathematical mistakes, mistakes in applying methods, intentional misuse or bias of information.
Cash to be received in the future has a cost. Alternative investments and price inflation reduce the value of those cash flows in current monetary terms (present value). That is why the cash flows are discounted, normally using a constant discount rate.
- The decision commits resources for a lengthy period of time, and this commitment usually prevents taking another future opportunity.
- Management's flexibility to modify and investment as time and information unfold can affect alternative decisions.
Variable overhead costs fluctuate with the level of business activity (increase with higher business activity and decrease with lower business activity) where fixed overhead mostly refer to rents, salaries and insurance.
When a company does not use market prices or negotiated prices to determine transfer price, it usually turns to cost-based transfer-pricing. The cost-based transfer price may be based upon:
- Unit-level cost
- Absorption cost
Sales are also subject to deviation from plans.
The two most common types of analysis focus on
- sales revenue
- contribution margin
Once again the variance measures the difference between budgeted and actual amounts. But now a variance is favorable if actual exceeds budget.
Sales variances can be further divided into:
- Revenue sales-volume variances
Additional analyses can be carried out on:
- Revenue-sales mix
- Revenue-sales quantity
- Revenue-market size
- Revenue-market-share variances.
Generally, variances for direct and indirect costs are closed at the end of each period to the cost of goods sold account. Logically, those variances are also related to the ending inventories of materials, work-in-process and finished goods. The cost accounting standards board requires that part of any cost variance be assigned to the related inventories.
In a standard costing system:
- unfavorable variance are equal to underapplied overhead
- favorable variances are equal to overapplied overhead
The sum of the overhead variances equals the under- and overapplied overhead cost of a period.
Results when standard hours allowed for actual output differs from the denominator activity.
A periodic measure to quantify the difference between budgeted and actual figures for a particular accounting category. A favorable budget variance refers to positive variances or gains; an unfavorable budget variance describes negative variance, meaning losses and shortfalls. Budget variances occur because forecasters are unable to predict the future with complete accuracy.