Samenvatting Introduction to Principles of Urban Environmental Management

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Samenvatting - Introduction to Principles of Urban Environmental Management

  • 1.1 The urban environment - challenges and potential

  • Are industrial areas part of urban areas?
    Yes
  • What aspects does an urban area have according to Wirth (1938)?
    - Large population size
    - High population density
    - Social heterogenity
    - Permanence
  • What aspects does an urban area have according to Bugliarello (2006)?
    - Population
    - Administrative jurisdictions
    - Function (i.e. Economic function)
    - Territory
  • What aspects does an urban area have according to Cohen (2006)?
    - Population size
    - Population density
    - Administrative / political boundaries
    - Economic function
  • What is social heterogenity?
    Multiple professions / occupations
  • What is a territory?
    Urban area or land that governing bodies have authority over
  • How do urban areas grow?
    - Urban agglomeration
    - Metropolitan region
  • What is urban agglomeration?
    Population contained within the contours of a continuous territory inhabited at urban levels of residential density
  • What is a metropolitan region?
    Both the continuous territory and surrounding areas with lower settlement density, under direct influence of a city
  • Urban areas are generally:
    - Metropols
    - Cities
    - Towns
    - Conurbations
  • What criteria's does an urban area have
    - Administrative criteria
    - Population size
    - Population density
    - Economic characteristics
    - Functional characteristics
  • What types of spaces do cities consist of?
    - Living space
    - Working space
    - Leisure space
    - People space
    - Mobility space
  • What types of mobility spaces are there in a city?
    - Sewage systems
    - Energy systems
  • Which city systems are we unable to see?
    - Big data
    - Food systems
  • What do settlements require to be made?
    1) Access to resources:
       - Agriculture
       - Trade
    2) Subsoil
    3) Tech innovations
  • What are growth drivers?
    - Natural increase
    - Migration
    - Reclassification of urban areas
  • Is population growth equal to urban growth?
    Yes, because all population growth is in urban areas
  • High income country = high percentage of urbanisation
  • Population growth equals energy consumption growth. Energy consumption of finite sources skyrockets. High demand for food.
  • What are effects of climate change?
    - Temperature and climate change
    - Extreme weather
    - Changes in composition of oceans
    - Sea level rise
  • Problems that cause climate change
    - Use of way too much resources
    - Heavily reliant on non-renewable resources
    - Pollution, degradation and destruction of earth's systems
  • What is the current state of our urbanized world?
    Linear metabolism: Resource input >> Waste streams
  • What causes the massive throughput of materials?
    - dependent on external supplies
    - global transportation based on fossil fuel
    - Without fossil fuels mega cities would not have occured
  • What do we need to do to re-balance the world
    - We need to re-balance us and the environment
    - Tackle challenges and opportunities of urban areas
  • Why do cities have high potential?
    - Density = solutions and potential
    - Unused potential for supply, recovery and production
    - Unused potential of ambitious people
    - Local technical / socio-technical solutions
  • What is the vision for future cities?
    - Local renewable sources
    - Cascading, recovery and reuse of resource flows
    - Maximize potential
  • What was covered?:
    -  Subsoil and technological innovations influence locations and conditions of urban areas
    - Definitions of an 'urban area' differs
    - Population growth = urban growth
    - We have a demand for resources and produce emissions
    - Urban populations form the problem and the solution
    - Circular urban metabolism
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Laatst toegevoegde flashcards

There are different spatial scales, with each level...?
The complexity increases
How does step D of the ABCD-method work?
- group effective measures
- pick the 'low-hanging fruit'
- continuous backcasting
- organisational learning and change
How does step C of the ABCD-method work?
- brainstorm potential solutions 
- develop strategies
How does step B of the ABCD-method work?
- perform a sustainability gap analysis
- social context
- organisational culture
How does step A of the ABCD-method work?
- align the organisation
- identify a bigger picture
- creating a vision
What do the letters of the ABCD-method stand for?
- Awareness & defining success
- Baseline
- Creative solution
- Decide on priorities
How does backcasting work?
- begin with the end in mind
- move backwards from the vision to the present
- move step by step towards the vision
What are the 4 system conditions?
- concentrations of substances extracted from the Earth's crust
- concentrations of substances produced by society
- degradation by physical means
- people are not subject to conditions that systemetically undermine their capacity to meet their needs
What does the 'funnel metaphor' entail?
resources are limited, the funnel forms the boundaries
What are the 3 parts of The Natural Step (TNS)?
- the funnel metaphor
- 4 system conditions (or principles)
- backcasting and ABCD approach