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Samenvatting - Management and organisational behaviour
1 Introduction to management and organisational behaviour
What is an independent variable ?The variable thought to affect one or more dependent variables
Which theory was developed (1940-1950) by Abraham Maslow?Theory of motivation
What is the critism of scientific management?its to preoccupied with productivity
Who developed scientific management?Frederick Taylor
What are de six subsystems Fayol divided business in?
What is a moderating variable ?A variable believed to influence the effects of the independent variable on the dependent variable
What are the five social disciplines which have been major contributors to management and organisational behaviour?
- Psychology - focusses directly on understanding and predicting individual behaviour
- Sociology - how individuals interactwith one another in social systems
- Social psychology - a behavioural science hybrid that integrates phsychology and sociologyto study why indivuals behave as they do when part of a group
- Anthropology - studies the relationship between individuals and their enviroments and how a person or a group adapts to his enviroment
- Political science - studies the individuals and groups in governmental and public policy-making enviroments
What is scientific management?Scientific management is an early1900s movement that evaluated the status of managers and held that scientific observation of people at work would reveal the one best way to do any task
Which models and theories are seen as the classical theories of management?Scientific Management by Taylor, Management functions by Fayol and Bureaucray Theory by Weber
What is the systems theory?
The systems theory emphasises that the whole is greater than the sum of parts, and that the parts of subsystems are related to each other and the whole
What did the theory of motivation do with the way of managing?It shifted management attention away from simply providing basic needs and towards awareness that people's growth needs could be achieved at work
What did Elton Mayo try to do with the Hawtorne studies?
Hawtorne studies was done to determine the relationship between physical working conditions and worker productivity
What does bureaucracy include?
- A hierarchy of command
- Specialisation and division of labour by organisational function
- an explicit system of rules and policies that standardises how things ought to be done, to ensure equitable treatment of everyone
- Promotion and tenure based on competence, developed trough training and experience
- Impersonal treatment of people trough consistent application of rules and decisions to prevent favouritism
What is a hypothesis ?A statement about the proposed relationship between independent and dependent variables
What is scientific method ?The use of theory to guide systematic, empirical research from which generalisations can be made to influence applications.
What is a dependent variable ?The outcome studied through research and believed to be caused or influenced by an independent variable
What are the five management functions Fayol described to handle the six subsystems of business?
What is validity?The degree to which a research method actually measures what is supposed to measure
Who developed the first management priciples that focussed on administrative aspects of the managers' job?Henri Fayol
The workers of the Hawtorne studies were productive due to the changes of in a variety of physical conditions, what seemed to be the most important factor that kept the productibility high?
What seemed to be important were social elements such as:
- Involvement in decision-making
- work relationships
- group attitudes and values
What did Chester Barnard do in management?He described management as social system approach
What is bureaucracy?Max Weber's rational-legal authority structure for organising specialised functions and standardising procedure to achieve effeciency
What is the Hawtorne effect?The unintentional biasing of research outcomes due to the possibility that simply paying attention to the experimental subjects causes their behaviour to change
What are contingency theories?Theories that identify the circumstances in which a particular practice is more likely to obtain desired results
What is seen as reliability?The consistency of data obtained from a particular research method