Samenvatting Management of Organisations in the EU

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Samenvatting - Management of Organisations in the EU

  • 1 Management of Organisations in the EU

  • What type of managers are there
    Top - Strategic
    Middle - Tactical
    First Line - operational
  • Top Managers - Strategic plans
      Relationships with external environment, strategic decisions, product-market combination
    Organizational and administrative decisions
    Specific actions you take in implementing your strategy
  • Middle Managers - Operational plans
    Supervisors, operational level (who does what, work instruction, motivation)
  •   Human relations skills; the art of

    •Understanding and being understood (communication)
    •Getting along with other people

    Often appreciated in middle management, because they are the bridge/liaison between lower and higher management
  •   Time management skills
    How to deal with deadlines etc
  • Technical skills
    The skills need to perform specialized tasks

    Specialization = education plus experience
  •   Conceptual skills; the ability to

    •“think in abstract”
    • “diagnose and analyse different situations”
    •A willingness to see things differently
    •“Out of the box, beyond the present situation future thinking”
  •   Decision making skills
      -Fact gathering, analysis

    -Identifying solutions
    -Evaluating alternatives
    -implement the chosen alternative
    -Assess the effectiveness of the chosen alternative
  • What are the Basic management skills?
  • Definition of Management
    Management is the process of planning, organizing, directing and controlling an organization's financial, physical, human and information resources to achieve its goals
  • What is de General Management Process?
  • What are the 3 steps of Planning?
      1 What are my (overall) goals? (determine/establish)

    2 Develop a strategytoachieve those goals

    3 Design a tactical and operational plan
  • Organizing
      Who is going to what andwhen?
  •  Directing/leading
      Leading is all about guiding and motivating employees in order to meet company’s objectives
  •  Controlling
    Control Process
  •  The Strategic Management Process
    The process of helpinganorganizationmaintainaneffectivealignmentwithits environment
  •  The Strategic Management Process
    Revenue growth
    Raking on indexes
    Set Strategic Goals - organizations and their managers measure success of failure
    Share of new market - Market penetration
    Cost reduction
  • What is de purpose of setting goals?
    •Set company direction
    •Help firms resource allocation
    •Define corporate culture
    •Benchmark/assess performance
  •  Hierarchical levels of Strategy
      Corporate strategy - The business you should be in
    Business or competive strategy – your tactic to beat the competition
    Functional strategy – operational methods to implement yourtactics
  • How is to create a strategy?
      Operationalize by translation of strategy into plans:

  •  Two common methodes of dealing withthe unknown and unforseen
    •A contingency plan A what if plan; trying to anticipate
    a eventuality

    •Crisis management A pressured rapid respons to an emergency
  • How can you change orporate culture
    By big changes
  • What does the blue part mean?
      Identifying the job that needs to be done + designating it to the person who is going to do it
    = specialisation
  • What does the brown part mean?
      The way specialized jobs are clustered together into logical units
    = departmentalization
  •  What determines an organizational structure?
      Long term mission, strategy and goals

    Organizational size

  •   Remember:An organizational structure changes continuously
  • Why specialize?
  •   Why do we increase efficiency and as a result productivity?
      It takes time toacquire new skills “&” andto switch new tasks
    + People can do whatthey do best andbecomebetter at it
  • What does specialization provides?
      Specialization provides enhanced efficiency and subsequent productivity that allows an organization to grow
  • What are the advantage of specialization
      asks are learned more easily….
    …..and can be performed more efficiently
    Easier to replace people who leave organization
  • What are the disadvantage of specialization
      There is a danger of overspecialization
    People may get bored and careless
    Derive less satisfaction from their job
    Lose sight of their role in organization
  •  Departmentalization means
      Putting a group of (specialized) jobs in a logical unit
  • How to departmentalize
      Functional -Based on the primary functions performed
    Product - Based on the goods/services produced or sold

    Process - Based on the production process used

    Customer - Based on the primary type of customer served
    Geographic - Based on the geographic segmentation of organizational units
  • Departmentalization pro's en cons

    Potential advantages:

    •Good coordination and management control within the function
    •Development and mastering of in depth skills (putting comparable experts together)
    •Economies of scale by centralizing its resources and locate various experts in that area (think Adam Smith example)

    Potential disadvantages:

    •Potential lack of communication among the different departments.
    •Identification with department and its goals rather than with the goals of the organization as a whole.
    •Narrow specialists training through lack of diversity.
    •Risk of groupthink potential affecting creative development
  • What are the Key ingredients of the decision-making Hierarchy
    •Centralization and Decentralization
  •   Centralized organization
     - An organization in which most decision-making authority is held by upper-level managers
    -Often a “tall” organization = many layers of management

    ex: US Army
  •   Decentralized organization
    -An organization in which most decision-making authority is delegated to various points under the top
    -In many cases a “flat” organization (=> few management layers)

    ex: HHS University
  •  Centralization and decentralization:

    More centralized means:

    •Stable and predictable environment •Less decision making capabilities lower level management
    More decentralized:

    •complex, uncertainenvironment

    •Lower level managers are capable and experienced at making decisions
  •   Span of control
      The number of subordinates that a manager or supervisor can directly control
  •  What determines the span of control
      Employee abilities
    Similarity andsimplicity of tasks
    Supervisor managerial skills
  • The process of  Delegation is
    1.Assigning responsibility
    -The duty to perform an assigned task

    2.Granting authority
    -Granting the ability to make decisions

    3.Creating accountability
    -Creating an obligation to commit to the task
  • 3 types of Authority
      Line authority - Authority flows in direct chain of command
    Staff authority - Authority based on expertise that usually involves counseling and advising line managers
    Committee and team authority -
    Authority granted to committees or teams involved in a firm's daily operations
  •   Functional structure:
      Authority is determined by the relationships between group functions and activities

    ex: Normally: Small & medium sized company’s
  •   Divisional structure
      Divisions operate as autonomous departments under the larger corporate umbrella
  •   Virtual structure
      A virtual organization or company is one whose members are geographically apart, usually working by e-mail and or groupware while appearing to others to be a single, unified organization with a real physical location.
  •   Formal organization
      Official arrangements of jobs, functions and relationships within an organization
  •   Informal organization
      Network of everyday social interactions within an organization
  •   Intra-pre-neur VS Entrepreneur
    -Intrapreneurshipis the act of behaving like an entrepreneur while working within a large organization

    -Entrepreneurshipmore is the process of designing, launching and running a new business, i.e. a start-up company offering a product, process or service for own risk
  •  what is Marketing
    •The process by which companies:

    –Create value “for” customers

    –Capture value “from” customers in return
  •   But once you know what the customer wants you have to deliver, be it a product or service
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Skills inventory
quickly identifying who is qualified to do what... also what or who is missing
Job specification
list of skills and abilities to perform the job effectively
Job description
the duties and responsibilities of a job
Job analysis
the systematic analysis of jobs within an organization
What is Human Resource Management
set of organizational activities directed at attracting, developing and maintaining an effective workforce
 Union and management can agree to call in third party
  Mediation, Arbitration
What happens When Bargaining fails
  Labor union tactics: Strike, Pickets, Boycotts, Work slowdown

Management tactics: Lockouts, Strike-breakers
What is Collective bargaining
  Process by which labor and management (and sometimes government) negotiate employment conditions
What is Labor (or trade) union
   Group working together to achieve shared job-related goals
 Contingent (temporary) workers
  Contingent workers are employees who do not work full-time or permanent