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Samenvatting - Organizational Behavior
1 chapter 1
What means Soft skills:working, communicating effectively, leadership and cultural awareness.
Employers claim that developing these interpersonal skills is essential for managerial effectiveness. Interpersonal skills is closely tied to the need for organizations to get and keep high performing employees.
Henri Fayol wrote that all managers perform five management functions, but Today, we have condensed these to four. Give them both
organizing, commanding, coordinating and controlling.
- organizing, leading and controlling.
- planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating and controlling.
1.1 The importance of interpersonal skills
What is the importance of interpersonal skills?First of, since 1980 there has been more focus on understanding human behavior and its relationship with the effectiveness of managers. It has been shown that developing managers interpersonal skills helps organizations attract and retain high performing employees. Social relationships among coworkers and supervisors are related to job satisfaction, lower turnover of employees and low intentions to quit. Companies that are good places to work generate superior financial performance. Also understanding OB helps determine a managers effectiveness. Leadership and communication skills are critical as a person progresses in his or her career. Better interpersonal skills result in lower turnover of quality employees and higher quality applications of recruitment.
1.2 What managers do
What do managers do?Managers achieve goals through other people. By making decisions, allocating resources and directing the activities of others to attain goals.
What is an organization?A consciously coordinated social unit, consisting out of two or more people that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals.
What are the four functions of managers?1. planning 2. leading 3. controlling 4. organizing
What are the three types of roles that managers can execute?1. interpersonal 2. informational 3. decisional
What are the three types of management skills?1.technical skills 2. human skills 3. conceptual skills
What are the four managerial activities according to Fred Luthans?1. traditional management 2. communication 3. human resource management 4. networking
What are some of the insights from Fred Luthans research into the difference between effective vs succesful managerial activities?Succesful managers give almost the opposite emphasis to traditional management, communication, hrm and networking as do effective managers. This challenges the assumption that promotion is based on performance rather than on politics and networking in getting ahead in an organization.
1.3 Definition of organizational behavior
What is organizational behavior?a field of study that investigates the impact of individuals, groups and structure on behavior within organizations, for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organization's effectiveness.
1.4 Complementing intuition with systematic study
What is systematic study?looking at relationships, attempting to attribute causes and effects and drawing conclusions based on scientific evidence
What is evidence based management?the basing of managerial decisions on the best available scientific evidence
What is intuition?a gut feeling not necessarily supported by research
Samenvatting - Organizational Behavior
2 Diversity in Organizations
What are the two major forms of workforce diversity?Surface level Diversity (Demographics) & Deep-level diversity (e.g. personality and values)
Stereotypes and how they affect an organization
- Stereotypes are ideas about a group that are used to draw conclusions about an individual --> This leads to discrimination (Judging people according to the group characteristics that they are in instead of individual characteristics)
Types of discrimination
- Discriminatory policies or practices
- Sexual harassment
- Mockery and insults
What are the biographical differences and how are they relevant?
- Age - Can be either positive or negative but does not necessarily lead to decreased performance - relevant because age is related to productivity, OCB's, Resistance to change etc.
- Sex - Relevant because sex based discrimination is very counterproductive and understanding traits of the sexes can help to increase effectiveness
- Race and Ethnicity- Relevant because the race and ethinicity of our colleagues has influence on our perceptions of them, which has to be understood to manage OB
- Disability - Disabilities of people have a great influence on our perceptions of their qualities and their performance, understanding this can help us use it to our benefit
What is the definition of intellectual ability? And give an example to show its relevanceAbilities needed to perform mental activities: thinking, reasoning and problem solving - Important for every activity in organisations and therefore very important to be managed correctly
How do organizations manage diversity effectively?
- They teach managers about the legal framework for equal employment
- They teach managers how a diverse workforce will be better able to serve a diverse group of customers
- They foster personal development practices that bring out the skills and abilities of all workers, acknowledging how differences in perspective can be a valuable way to improve performance for everyone
What are the three different components of an attitude?
- Cognitive component - Description of or belief about the way things are - 'My pay is low'
- Affective component - Emotional part of the attitude - The fact that my pay is low makes me angry
- Behavioral component - The behavior that is resulting from the previous components - Because im angry about the fact that my pay is low im gonna look foor another job
How is behavior related to attitudes?Attitudes can change our behavior and vice versa. This is because a difference between behavior and attitudes causes cognitive dissonance, which is something that individuals wish to avoid.To avoid dissonance, we either change behavior or attitudes. The most powerful factors that influence whether we change our attitudes/behaviors or not are :
- Importance of the attitude
- correspondence to behavior
- social pressures
- Direct experience or not
What are the major different job attitudes?Job Satisfaction - A positive feeling about a job resulting from its characteristicsJob Involvement - The degree to which people identify psychologically with their job and consider their perceived performance level of self-worthOrganizational commitment - The degree to which people identify psychologically with their organization and are willing to make sacrifices for the organization
4 Emotions and Moods
What is the difference between emotions and moods?Emotions are intense feelings directed at someone or something, while moods are more a general feelings at a certain point in time
Which different basic emotions exist?Anger - Fear - Sadness - Happiness - Disgust - Suprise
Are emotions rational?Not always, But they are needed for rational thinking.
What functions do emotions serve?
- They provide important information about how we understand the world around us
- They are needed to make rational decisions
- They make us behave more ethically
- They provide important information about how we understand the world around us
What are the different sources of emotions and moods?
- Moment in time
- Social Activities
What is the impact emotional work has on employees?Emotional Labor can cause employees to experience emotional dissonance, the difference between emotions felt and emotions displayed. This is very heavy shit and can therefore cause emotional exhaustion and burnout.
What is the affective events theory and how is it applied?Work Environment --> Work events --> Work events + personal dispositions --> Emotional reactions --> Job performance / Job satisfactionHow is it applied?
- They provide important information on how workplace hassles and uplifting events affect job performance and satisfaction
- Employees and managers shouldnt ignore emotionas or the events that caused them because they accumulate
What is the evidence for and against the existence of emotional intelligence?Evidence For:
- Intuitive appeal
- El predicts criteria that matter
- EI is biologically biased
- EI researchers dont agree on definitions
- EI cant be measured
- Ei is nothing but personality with a different label
What are different effects of emotional regulation?
- Selection - Selecting employees based on EI drastically increases succes of the organization
- Decision making - To make good decisions, it is important to experience positive moods and emotions
- Creativity - Positive moods and emotions increase creativity
- Motivation - Positive moods and emotions increase job motivation
- Leadership - By using positive emotions in speeches, their effectivity drastically increases
- Negotiation - Being able to regulate emotions in negotiating and not showing them, success increases
- Customer Service - Emotional contagion causes emotions of the employee to be transferred to the customer
- Job attitutes - Your emotions about work are also felt home, so regulating them can help you relax at home
- Deviant Workplace Behaviors - Caused by negative emotions
- Safety and Injury at work - Better moods make sure Employees are getting less injuries at work
How can Managers Influence moods?
- Use Humor
- Small tokens of appreciation for good work
- By being in a positive mood as a manager, emotional contagion can transfer this to your subordinates
- By hiring employees more likely to experience positive moods
Laatst toegevoegde flashcards
What types of flexible benefit programs exist?
Modular plans, core-plus plans and flexible spending plans.
What are flexible benefits?
A benefits plan that allows each employee to put together a benefits package individually tailored to his or her own needs and situation. It allows each employee to choose the compensation package that best satisfies his or her current needs and situation. Also replace the one benefit plan fits all program designed for a male with a wife and two children at home that dominated organizations for more than 50 years.
What is an employee stock ownership plan?
A company established benefit plan in which employees acquire stock often at blow market prices as part of their benefits.
What is gain sharing?
A formula based group incentive plan. It uses improvements in group productivity from one period to the next to determine the total amount of money allocated.
What is a profit sharing plan?
Organization wide programs that distribute compensation based on some established formula centered around a company's profitability.
What is skill based pay? And what is its major downside?
A pay plan that sets pay levels on the basis of how many skills employees have or how many jobs they can do. Its major downside is that people can learn all the skill and it doesn't adress performance.
What are bonuses? And what is its major downside?
A pay plan that rewards employees for recent performance rather than historical performance. Its downside is that employees pay is more vulnerable to cuts.
What is major limitation of a merit based pay plan?
It is based on annual performance appraisal and unions typically resist merit-based pay plans.
What is a merit based pay plan?
A pay plan based on performance appraisal ratings. It allows employers to differentiate pay based on performance. It also creates perceptions of relationships between performance and rewards.
What is a major limitation of a piece rate pay plan?
It's not a feasible approach for a lot of jobs because although it offers a motivating and relevant incentive for some jobs it is unrealistic to think they can constitute the only piece of employees' pay.