Samenvatting Organizational Behavior

ISBN-10 0273765299 ISBN-13 9780273765295
149 Flashcards en notities
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Dit is de samenvatting van het boek "Organizational Behavior". De auteur(s) van het boek is/zijn Stephen P Robbins Tim Judge. Het ISBN van dit boek is 9780273765295 of 0273765299. Deze samenvatting is geschreven door studenten die effectief studeren met de studietool van Study Smart With Chris.

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Samenvatting - Organizational Behavior

  • 2 Diversity in Organizations

  • What are the two major forms of workforce diversity?
    Surface level Diversity (Demographics) & Deep-level diversity (e.g. personality and values)

  • Stereotypes and how they affect an organization
    • Stereotypes are ideas about a group that are used to draw conclusions about an individual --> This leads to discrimination (Judging people according to the group characteristics that they are in instead of individual characteristics)

    Types of discrimination
    • Discriminatory policies or practices
    • Sexual harassment
    • Intimidation
    • Mockery and insults
    • Exclusion
    • Incivility

  • What are the biographical differences and how are they relevant?
    • Age - Can be either positive or negative but does not necessarily lead to decreased performance - relevant because age is related to productivity, OCB's, Resistance to change etc. 
    • Sex - Relevant because sex based discrimination is very counterproductive and understanding traits of the sexes can help to increase effectiveness
    • Race and Ethnicity- Relevant because the race and ethinicity of our colleagues has influence on our perceptions of them, which has to be understood to manage OB
    • Disability - Disabilities of people have a great influence on our perceptions of their qualities and their performance, understanding this can help us use it to our benefit

  • What is the definition of intellectual ability? And give an example to show its relevance
    Abilities needed to perform mental activities: thinking, reasoning and problem solving - Important for every activity in organisations and therefore very important to be managed correctly
  • How do organizations manage diversity effectively?
    • They teach managers about the legal framework for equal employment
    • They teach managers how a diverse workforce will be better able to serve a diverse group of customers 
    • They foster personal development practices that bring out the skills and abilities of all workers, acknowledging how differences in perspective can be a valuable way to improve performance for everyone

  • What are the three different components of an attitude?
    • Cognitive component - Description of or belief about the way things are - 'My pay is low'
    • Affective component - Emotional part of the attitude - The fact that my pay is low makes me angry
    • Behavioral component - The behavior that is resulting from the previous components - Because im angry about the fact that my pay is low im gonna look foor another job
  • How is behavior related to attitudes?
    Attitudes can change our behavior and vice versa. This is because a difference between behavior and attitudes causes cognitive dissonance, which is something that individuals wish to avoid. 

    To avoid dissonance, we either change behavior or attitudes. The most powerful factors that influence whether we change our attitudes/behaviors or not are  :

    • Importance of the attitude
    • correspondence to behavior
    • accessibility
    • social pressures
    • Direct experience or not

  • What are the major different job attitudes?
    Job Satisfaction - A positive feeling about a job resulting from its characteristics

    Job Involvement - The degree to which people identify psychologically with their job and consider their perceived performance level of self-worth

    Organizational commitment - The degree to which people identify psychologically with their organization and are willing to make sacrifices for the organization
  • 4 Emotions and Moods

  • What is the difference between emotions and moods?
    Emotions are intense feelings directed at someone or something, while moods are more a general feelings at a certain point in time
  • Which different basic emotions exist?
    Anger - Fear - Sadness - Happiness - Disgust - Suprise
  • Are emotions rational?
    Not always, But they are needed for rational thinking.
  • What functions do emotions serve?
    • They provide important information about how we understand the world around us
    • They are needed to make rational decisions
    • They make us behave more ethically

  • What are the different sources of emotions and moods?
    • Personality
    • Moment in time
    • Weather
    • Stress
    • Social Activities
    • Sleep
    • Exercise
    • Age
    • Sex
  • What is the impact emotional work has on employees?
    Emotional Labor can cause employees to experience emotional dissonance, the difference between emotions felt and emotions displayed. This is very heavy shit and can therefore cause emotional exhaustion and burnout.

  • What is the affective events theory and how is it applied?
    Work Environment --> Work events --> Work events + personal dispositions --> Emotional reactions --> Job performance / Job satisfaction

    How is it applied?

    • They provide important information on how workplace hassles and uplifting events affect job performance and satisfaction
    • Employees and managers shouldnt ignore emotionas or the events that caused them because they accumulate

  • What is the evidence for and against the existence of emotional intelligence?
    Evidence For: 

    • Intuitive appeal
    • El predicts criteria that matter
    • EI is biologically biased

    Evidence Against:

    • EI researchers dont agree on definitions
    • EI cant be measured
    • Ei is nothing but personality with a different label

  • What are different effects of emotional regulation?
    • Selection - Selecting employees based on EI drastically increases succes of the organization
    • Decision making - To make good decisions, it is important to experience positive moods and emotions
    • Creativity - Positive moods and emotions increase creativity
    • Motivation - Positive moods and emotions increase job motivation
    • Leadership - By using positive emotions in speeches, their effectivity drastically increases
    • Negotiation - Being able to regulate emotions in negotiating and not showing them, success increases
    • Customer Service - Emotional contagion causes emotions of the employee to be transferred to the customer
    • Job attitutes - Your emotions about work are also felt home, so regulating them can help you relax at home 
    • Deviant Workplace Behaviors - Caused by negative emotions
    • Safety and Injury at work - Better moods make sure Employees are getting less injuries at work
  • How can Managers Influence moods?
    • Use Humor
    • Small tokens of appreciation for good work
    • By being in a positive mood as a manager, emotional contagion can transfer this to your subordinates
    • By hiring employees more likely to experience positive moods

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