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Samenvatting - Organizational Behavior: Managing People and Organizations
5.1 the nature of motivation
Motivationis the set offorces that make people behavein certain ways.
what does that mean?--
The model illustrates motivation by looking at need deficiencies and goal- directed behavior. We look at how organize our discussion. Explain the framework
This framework providesa useful way to see how motivational processes occur. When people experience a need deficiency, they seek ways to satisfy it, which results in a choice of goal-directed behaviors. After performing the behavior, the individual experiences rewards or punishments that affect the original need deficiency.
Given an early perspective on motivation, give and explanation of what scientific management approach to motivation
it is assumed that
employees are motivated
Given an early perspective on motivation, give and explanation of what the "human relations approach" to motivation is
it suggests that fostering a sense of employees’ inclusion in decision making will result in positive employee attitudes and motivation to work hard
Human resource approach in connection to motivation
Assumesthat people wantto contribute and
are able to make genuine contributions
If we look at individual differences and motivation, we will look in to the term "task -specific self -efficacy). What is it?
A person’s beliefs in his or her capabilities to do what is required to accomplish a specific task
Task-specific self-efficacy beliefs have
1. Magnitude: beliefs about how difficult a specific task can be accomplished
2. Strength: beliefs about how confident the person is that the specific task
can be accomplished
3. Generality: beliefs about the degree to which similar tasks can be
5.2 need-based perspectives on motivation
Need-based theories of motivation
Assume that need
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
Assumes that human needs are arranged in a hierarchy of importance
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs consists of five basic categories of needs. This figure illustrates both general and organizational examples of each type of need. Of course, each individual has a wide variety of specific needs within each category.
The ERG theory (letated to motivation)Describes that there is more needs then what is stated in Maslow's needs hierarchy: existence need,
relatednessneed and a growth need
'The two factor theory' on motivation
Identifies motivation factors, which affect satisfaction, and hygiene factors, which determine dissatisfaction.
The traditional view of The Two Factor Theory of
that satisfaction and dissatisfaction were
opposite ends of a single dimension. Herzberg’s Two Factor theory found
evidence of a more complex view. In this
theory, motivation factors affect one dimension, ranging from satisfaction
to no satisfaction. Other workplace characteristics, called “
are assumed to affect another dimension, ranging from
Motivation factorsRefers her to intrinsic towards the work itself and includes achievement and recognitional factors
factors Refersto extrinsictowards the work itself and includes factors as pay and job security.
Need for affiliation (motivation)Is the need for companionship
Need for powerA desire to control the resources in one's environment.
5.3 process-based perspectives on motivation
Process-based perspectives (on motivaion)
Focus on how people behave in their efforts to satisfy their needs
Equity theory (on motivation)
Focuses on people’s desire to be treated with what they perceive as equity and to avoid perceived inequity
Equity and responses to equity(look at the figure)
The belief that we are being treated fairly in relation to others; inequity is the belief that we are being treated unfairly in relation to others
perceptions by comparing their situation with that of someone else’s. If they perceive equity, they are motivated to maintain the current situation. If they perceive inequity, they are motivated to use one or more of the strategies shown here to reduce the inequity.
Expectancy theory (of motivation)
Suggests that people are motivated by how much they want something and the likelihood they perceive of getting it
Effort to performance expectancy
A person’s perception of
the probability that effort
will lead to performance
The individual’s perception of the probability that performance will lead to certain outcomes
The expectancy theory of motivation
The expectancy theory is the most complex model of employee motivation in organizations. As shown here, the key components of expectancy theory are effort-to-performance expectancy, performanceto- outcome instrumentality, and outcomes, each of which has an associated valence. These components interact with effort, the environment, and the ability to determine an individual’s performance.
Outcome and valence
- Anything that results from performing a particular behavior
- The degree of attractiveness or unattractiveness a particular outcome has for a person
The Porter-Lawler model
The Porter and Lawler expectancy model provides interesting insights into the relationships between satisfaction and performance. As illustrated here, this model predicts that satisfaction is determined by the perceived equity of intrinsic and extrinsic rewards for performance. That is, rather than satisfaction causing performance, which many people might predict, this model argues that it is actually performance that eventually leads to satisfaction.
expectancy theory offers several importantguidelines for the practicing manager. The following are some of the more fundamental guidelines:
1. Determine the primary outcomes each employee wants.
2. Decide what levels and kinds of performance are needed to meet organizational goals.
3. Make sure the desired levels of performance are possible.
4. Link desired outcomes and desired performance.
5. Analyze the situation for conflicting expectancies and instrumentalities.
6. Make sure the rewards are large enough.7. Make sure the overall system is equitable for everyone.54
Laatst toegevoegde flashcards
A third party is involved and usually has the authority to impose a settlement on the parties
A third party builds a positive relationship between the parties and directs them toward a satisfactory settlement
Any gain to one party is
A win-win negotiation in which the agreement involves no loss to either party
The conflict process includes several elements that define the direction and magnitude of the conflict. Disagreements, emotions, and escalation all play important roles and suggest optimal conflict management strategies.
- Accommodating: A cooperative conflict management style
- collaborating: A conflict management style reflecting a desire to give both parties what they want
- compromising: A conflict management style in which each side sacrifices something in order to end the conflict.
- avoiding: Ignoring the conflict or denying that it exists
- competing: Pursuing one’s own interest at the expense of the other party
- Supervising others
- Working in a high-stress environment
- Personality conflicts
- Understaffed workplaces
- Economic downturns
-Be an empathetic listener
-Focus your attention on the other person
Use delay tactics to create time to diffuse
- Control your body language—relax,
uncross legs and arms, and make eye contact
-Remind both parties that a win-win
solution can be found
-Stay focused on issues, not emotions
-Communicating hostility verbally or
through body language
-Rejecting all requests from the start
-Challenging, threatening, or daring
Raising your voice
-Blaming either party or saying anything
that would cause the parties to lose face
-Minimizing the situation or the conflict
Differing task goals: disagreements over what is to be accomplished
Differing process goals: disagreements over how to accomplish tasks or goals
Interpersonal differences: differences in motivation, aspirations, or personality
Resource constraints: incompatible needs or competition over perceived or actual resource constraints
Change: the uncertainty of change often creates conflict
and changes the relative importance of different organizational groups
Differing values: perceived or actual incompatibilities in beliefs about what is good or bad, right or wrong, or fair or unfair
Poor communication: when people lack necessary information, are misinformed, interpret information differently, or disagree about which data is relevant
Task interdependence: when one person or unit is dependent on another for resources or information, the potential for conflict increases
Organizational structure: conflict (either horizontal or vertical) can result from structural or process features of the organization