Samenvatting Research Methods for Business Students

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ISBN-10 1292208783 ISBN-13 9781292208787
298 Flashcards en notities
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Samenvatting 1:

  • Research Methods for Business Students
  • M N K Saunders Adrian Thornhill Philip Lewis
  • 9781292208787 of 1292208783
  • 2019

Samenvatting - Research Methods for Business Students

  • 2 Choosing a research topic and developing your research proposal

  • What is a clearly defined research question? And what is most likely the first word of a research question?
    A clearly defined research question expresses what your research is about and will become the focal point of your research project. 

    It is most likely to start with 'What', 'When', 'Where', 'Who', 'Why', or 'How'.
  • What is important to do before commencing the research process?
    Express your research topic as a clearly defined research question.
  • The research question will be at the centre of your research project.
  • What will be at the centre of your research project?
    The research question
  • Over-reaching yourself in the definition of research questions is a danger.
  • If you use a research approach it is still important to define a clear question at the outset of your project to focus your researc, even if you then refine your research question accordingly.
  • What is the Russian doll principle when clarifying a research question?
    The Russian doll principle means refining a draft research question until it reflects the essence of your research idea without including any unnecessary words or intentions.
  • What is the goldilocks test accoring to clough and nutbrown?
    To decide if research questions are ether 'too big', 'too small', 'too hot' or 'just right'
  • What are research objectives?
    Once you have devised your research question and research aim, we believe that research objectives are likely to lead to greater specificity than using investigative questions.
  • In order to clarify a research question, Clough and Nutbrown (2012) talk of the Russion doll principle what is this?
    This means refining a draft research question until it reflects the essence of your research idea without including any unnecessary words or intentions.
  • What is a research aim?
    A research aim is a brief statement of the purpose of the research project.
  • Prior to discussion with your project tutor you may wish to conduct a brainstorm session with your peers or use the Delphi technique what is this?
    Your research question may flow from you initial examination of the relevant literature.
  • Research objectives allow you to operationalise your question - that is, to state the steps you intend to take to answer it.
  • What is a research aim?
    It is a brief statement of the purpose of the research project
  • What is theory?
    Theory is a systematric body of knowledge grounded in empirical evidence which can be used for explanatory or predictive purposes.
  • Of what are your research question and research aim complementary ways of?
    Of sayin what your research is about
  • A theory uses related facts and concepts to provide an explanation or predict an outcome.
  • What are research objectives?
    Objectives are more generally acceptable to the research community as evidence of the researcher's clear sense of purpose and direction
  • The explanatory power of a theory is based on its ability to explain relationships between concepts.
  • Your objectives allow you to operationalise your question what do we mean with that?
    To state the steps you intend to take to answer it
  • When do you use a deductive approach?
    When your research project will be theory-driven, you will be using a deductive approach.
  • How is the term theory used?
    To refer to 'a systematice body of knowledge grounded in empirical evidence which can be used for explanatory or predictive purposes'
  • When do you use an inductive approach?
    When your research project will be data-driven, you will be using an inductive approach.
  • Whetten identified that theory is composed of four elements what, how, why and a fourth group of who, where and when what is that summarised?
    through the following questions:

    1) what are the concepts or variables that the theory examines? 
    2)how are these concepts or variables related? (key aspect here is causality)
    3)why are these concepts or variables related?   
    4) who does this theory apply to; where does this theory apply; when does this theory apply?
  • What is the research proposal?
    The research proposal is a structured plan of your proposed research project.
  • What is in Sutton and Staws view theory not?
    References, data, lists of variables, diagrams, hypotheses or predictions
  • A well-thought-out research proposal has the potential to provide you with a clear specification of the what, why, how, when and where of your research project.
  • Advising you to carry out research in a particular way (variable A) is based on the theory that this will yield effective results (variable B). This is the cause-and-effect relationship refferd to the definition of theory developed earlier and is very much the view of Kelly
  • There are three such criteria that assess your research proposal:
    1. Coherence
    2. Ethical considerations
    3. Feasability
  • Why is theory important?
    Each ofus uses theory in our lives and in the jobs that we undertake.
  • Structure of your research proposal:
    1. Title (summarise the research question)
    2. Background (introduce the reader to research issue/problem)
    3. Research question(s), aim and objectives (statement of your research question(s)
    4. Method (designed to answer the question, 'how shall I conduct my research?')
    5. Timescale (divide your research project into its constituent stages or tasks (Gantt chart))
    6. Research (asses whether what you are proposing can be resourced)
    7. References (a few key literature sources to which you have referred)
  • What is important with research?
    That it provides us a much greater understanding of the effectiveness of the strategies used within chains
  • Theory published in the literature may inform your proposed researched question in several ways, in what ways?
    It helps you to formulate a research question and to find a purpose of your question
  • Using relevant theory to inform your research question will also sensitive you to the nature and level of importance of the research topic surrounding your question
  • What is important on how theory is developed?
    It also provides a crucial reason for recoginising relevant theory when writing your research question and objectives
  • What is a deductive approach?
    Where you wish to adopt a clear theoretical position that you will test through the collection of data, your research project will be theory driven and using a deductiove approach
  • What is an inductive approach?
    Where you wish to expoler a topic and develop a theoretical explanation as the data are collected and analysed, your research project will be data driven and will be adopting an inductitive approach.
  • Research questions may play a crucial role in encouraging research that is designed to produce theoretical explanations, no matter how limited explanations might be.
  • What ar substantive theories?
    That are restricted to a particular time, research setting, group or population or problem.
  • What is another way to examine the theoretical contributions into business and management?
    Assess its particual usefulness for organisations and those who work in them
  • What is the research proposal?
    Occasionally refferd to as a protocal or outline, is a structured plan of your proposed research project
  • What do you need to do before you can write your research proposal?
    You will need to be aware of available literature and appropriate theory, the research philosophy and approach that you wish to use, your research design including methodological choice, research strategy and time frame, access and ethical issues, sample selection, data collection methods and data analysis techniques
  • What do a well-thought-out and well-written research proposal have the potential to provide you with?
    A clear specification of the what, why, how, when and where of your research project
  • What do we mean with coherence?
    You are likely to benefit from creating a clear specification to guide your research project
  • What do we mean with ethical considerations?
    Part of the approval process for your research proposal may involve it being considered and approved by a research ethics comittee.
    as a professional student you may also need to be aware of and abide by the ethical requirements of your professional institute
  • What do we mean with feasibility?
    Feasibility is a multifaceted criterion that your assessors will be concerned about
  • Your research project offers a valuable way to learn the skills involved in this activity.
  • The title should simply and concisely summarise the research quesion
  • Your reader will be looking for some evidence that this is a topic in which you have sufficient interest to sustain the effort that will be required from you love the period of the research project.
  • What should the background section lead to?
    Logically into a statement of your research question, aim and research objectives
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Samenvatting 2:

  • Research methods for business students
  • Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis, Adrian Thornhill
  • 9780273716860 of 0273716867
  • 5th ed.

Samenvatting - Research methods for business students

  • 1 Introduction


  • Ontologie: Zijnsleer, studie naar de aard en de mogelijkheid van de dingen; aard van de werkelijkheid
    Epistemologie: Studie van aard van kennis en de beste manier om kennis over de werkelijkheid te verkrijgen
  • What are methods?
    Techniques and procedures used to obtain and analyse data. (questionnaires, interviews etc.)
  • objectivisme: sociale fenomenen als externe feiten die buiten de invloed van sociale actoren liggen

    subjectivisme: mensen zijn sociale actoren die betekenis toekennen aan de werkelijkheid en op die manier sociale fenomenen en sociale categorieen produceren en herzijn
  • What is methodology?
    Refers to a theory of how research should be undertaken.
  • positivisme: de sociale werkelijkheid kan men alleen bestuderen en proberen te verklaren door de methodologie van de natuurwetenschap

    interpretivsme: de sociale werkelijkheid wordt gecreeerd door sociale actoren, onderzoekers kunnen de werkelijkheid van sociale actoren alleen maar leren kennen dmv onderzoek van uitspraken en handelingen van deze actoren, van activiteiten van beteknisgeving
  • In which ways does Walliman argue that many of the everyday uses of the term 'research' aren't actually research?
    - Just collecting facts or information without purpose
    - Reassembling and reordering facts or information without interpretation
    - As an esoteric activity with no or little relevance to everyday life
    - As a term to get your product or idea noticed and respected
  • de methode van onderzoek zijn ondergeschikt aan het paradigma
    de filosofische uitgangspunten voor onderzoek zijn belangrijk voor de consistentie  ervan
  • What is research?
    A process that people undertake in a systematic way in order to find out things, thereby increasing their knowledge.
  • kwalitatief onderzoek werpt licht op:
    processen
    mechanismen
    betekenisgeving
    minder: causaliteit
  • What is business and management research?
    Undertaking systematic research to find out things about business and management.
  • kwalitatief onderzoek als een naturalistische interpretatieve benadering die zich richt op het begrijpen van betekenissen die mensen toekennen aan fenomenen in hun sociale wereld
  • What 3 features make business and management a distinctive focus for research?
    - Its multifaceted nature: it draws on knowledge from many different areas such as sociology, psychology, etc. 
    - The researched managers and employees are often as highly educated as the ones researching them
    - The research is expected to have some practical consequence and lead to action.
  • uitgangspunten: 
    onderzoeker en sociale werkelijkheid beinvloeden elkaar
    resultaten worden onvermijdelijk beinvloed door perspectief en waardes van onderzoeker, maar
    natuurwetenschappelijke methodes zijn ongeschikt voor sociaalwetenschappelijk onderzoek vanuit een interpretatief kader.
    de onderzoeker legt zich toe op het exploreren en begrijpen van sociale werkelijkheid dmv perspectieven van de respondenten en van de onderzoeker
  • How can you identify pedantic science?
    It is characterised by a focus on increasing methodological rigour at the expense of results that are relevant. T&M rigour = higher, pr. Relevance = lower
  • doel van het onderzoek:
    - beschrijvend: geven van beeld van personen, gericht op kenmerken van een fenomeen
    - verkennend: wat is er aan de hand, verschijnsel in nieuw licht willen zien
    -verklarend: gericht op verbanden tussen variabelen in kwantitatief onderzoek en interpretaties als oorzaken in kwalitatief onderzoek
    - projecterend: oplossen van problemen in het nu en in de toekomst
  • What characterises popularist science?
    A focus on relevance and usefulness (pr. relevance = higher) while neglecting theoretical and methodological rigour (T&M rigour = lower).  This means that although the findings might be very useful, the research on which it's based is often invalid and unreliable.
  • inductie: op basis van data een theorie vormen, van onderaf onderzoek doen
    deductie: data toetsen aan vooraf gestelde hyphothese, theorie. van bovenaf onderzoek doen
  • What is puerile science?
    Science that lacks both methodological and theoretical rigour (lower) and has little to no practical relevance (lower).
  • onderzoeksbenadering belangrijk voor:
    1:bepalen design
    2:helpt in het maken van methodologische keuzes
    3:de kennis vergroot inzicht in mogelijkheden
  • What characterises pragmatic science?
    The fact that it is both methodologically and theoretically rigorous (higher) and practically relevant (higher).
  • onderzoeksstrategieen:
    - casestudy
    -groundedtheory
    -etnografie
    -actionresearch
    -archiefonderzoek
  • What is mode 1 knowledge creation?
    Emphasises research in which the questions are set and solved by academic interests, emphasising a fundamental rather than applied nature.
  • Ethiek:
    normen en waarden die ons leiden in keuzes betreffende ons gedrag en onze betrekkingen met anderen

    het voorkomen van schade aan anderen als uitgangspunt van onderzoeksethiek
  • What is mode 2 knowledge creation?
    Emphasises a context of research governed by the world of practice, highlighting the importance of collaboration both with and between practitioners and the need for the production of practical relevant knowledge.
  • deontologie: doel heligt niet de middelen

    teleologie: het doel heiligt de middelen
  • What is mode 0 of knowledge creation?
    Argues knowledge production based on power and patronage, being particularly visible in the close relationships between sponsor and researcher, e.g. pharmaceutical sponsorship of medical research.
  • in elke onderzoeksfase rekening houden met ethiek
  • What is mode 3 of knowledge creation?
    Focuses on an appreciation of the human condition as it is and as it might become and the production of broad and complex societal results.
  • informed consent: je moet participanten eerlijke, betrouwbare informatie geven over alle facetten van het onderzoek zodat ze een vrije keuze hebben over het meedoen aan het onderzoek
  • What is the relevance gap?
    The schism that exists between the knowledge producers and knowledge users, in particular how managers fail to base practices on the best available evidence found by researchers.
  • gedragscode in nederland:
    1: zorgvuldigheid
    2:betrouwbaarheid
    3:controleerbaarheid
    4:onpartijdigheid( wetenschappelijk belang)
    5:onafhankelijkheid
  • What is evidence-based management?
    Management which derives principles from research evidence and translates them into practices that solve organisational problems.
  • Observeren: systematisch waarnemen,vastleggen, beschrijven, analyseren en interpreteren van fysiek en verbaal gedrag van mensen in een bepaalde context

    goed kijken ruiken voelen etc
    levert verschillende soorten data op
  • What is the problem with evidence-based management according to rousseau?
    It does not translate well to the workplace, since a lot of managers continue to rely on personal experience instead of systematic knowledge.
  • we cannot study the social world without being part of it
  • Is the rigour-relevance gap unbridgeable?
    According to some, yes, since the management researchers and the researched inhabit different worlds and have different research orientations. According to others (including Rousseau and Hodgekins) is is bridgeable, since the gap is more due to difference in style and language and that the researchers can generate knowledge that is both rigorous and socially useful.
  • etnografische observatie:
    -inductief
    - onderzoeker zelf onderzoeksinstrument
    - in natuurlijke, niet gecontroleerde omgeving
     - alleen keuze van locatie is mogelijk, verder niks
  • What is argument for classifying management research as design science and what is an argument against?
    For: Because in design science they focus on solution-oriented research, which is what they aim for in management research as well.
    Against: Management practise is made up of many ambiguous organisational phenomena, and it is impossible to abide to the rule-like explanations offered by design science.
  • aanpak wordt bepaald door:
    doel van onderzoek
    tijd
    geschiktheid onderzoeker
    toegang
    etnische aspecten
  • What are the purposes of basic/ fundamental/ pure research?
    - Expand knowledge of processes of business and management and their outcomes
    - Results in universal principles relating to the process and its relationship to outcomes
    - Findings of significance and value to society in general
  • uitvoering observatie: 
    toegang: introductie door poortwachter
    beschrijvingen
    noties over gesprekken
     conversaties met mensen
  • In what context do you find basic research?
    - Undertaken by people based in universities
    - Choice of topic and objectives determined by the researcher
    - Flexible time scales
  • ruimte
    mapping space: indeling ruimte( hierarchie/machtsrelaties)
    mapping movement: hoe/waar beweegt iedereen zich heen( relaties)
    centraal punt in organisaties
  • What are the purposes of applied research?
    - Improve understanding of particular business or management problem
    - Results in solution to problem
    - New knowledge limited to problem
    - Findings of practical relevance and value to managers in organisations
  • notities
    explicitiet zijn
    niet normatief
    probeer cijfers te geven
    schrijf gedetaillerd op wat je ziet
    gelijk die dag nog verwerken
  • In what context do you find applied science?
    - Undertaken by people based in a variety of settings including organisations and universities
    - Objectives negotiated with originator
    - Tight time scales
  • participerende observatie
    scoort hoog op ecologische valaditeit
     bias: altijd JOUW interpretatie
    oplossing:  
    langdurig onderzoek
    triangulatie
    vertificatie door informanten

    reflectie ook belangrijk
  • What is a reflective diary?
    A diary in which you note down all the things that went well during your research, what went wrong and what lessons you learned from that.
  • hawthorne effect: veranderingen in gedrag individu tgv veranderingen van buitenaf
  • What is reflection?
    The process of observing your own research practice and examining the way you do things.
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Laatst toegevoegde flashcards

What is cluster sampling?
Is on the surface, similar to stratified sampling as you need to find the target population in discrete groups prior to sampling. But for cluster sampling the groups are based on any naturally occurring grouping, your sampling frame is the complete list of clusters rater than a complete list of individual cases within the population.
If you are using simple random sampling or your sampling frame contains periodic patters you will need to stratify it how are you doing this?
1) choose the stratification variable or variables
2) divide the sampling frame into the discrete strata
3) number each of the cases withing each stratum with a unique number as discussed earlier.
4) select your sample using either simple random or systematic random sampling, as discussed earlier.
What is stratified random sampling?
A modification of random sampling in which you divide the target population into two or more relevant and significant strata based on one or a number of attributes.
How do you calculate the sampling fraction?
The proportion of the target population that you need to select you to do this with using the formula:
sampling fraction = actual sample size/ total population
What is systematic random sampling?
Involves you selecting a sample at regular intervals from the sampling frame you do this with:
1) number each of the cases in your sampling frame with a unique number.
2) select the first case using a random number.
3) calculate the sampling fraction
4) select subsequent cases systematically using the sampling fraction to determine the frequency of selection.
What is simple random sampling?
It involves you selecting the sample at random from the sampling frame using a spreadsheet's random number generation function or randumb number tables. The two criteria are:
1) number each of the cases in your sampling frame with a unique number. 
2) select cases using random numbers such as those generated by a spreadsheet until your actual sample size is reached.
Having chosen a suitable sampling frame and establishing the actual sample size required, you need to select the most appropriate sampling technique to obtain a representative sample what are the for main techniques that can be used when selecting a probability sample?
- simple random
- systematic random
- stratified random
- cluster
What is a response rate?
As part of your research report, you will include your response rate. 

total response rate= total number of responses/ (total number in sample-ineligible)  

active response rate= total number of responses /(total number in sample- (ineligible + unreachable))
What is non-response bias?
Bias resulting from respondents differing in meaningful ways from non-respondents
What is a perfect representative sample?
One that exactly represents the target population form which it is taken