Samenvatting Samenvatting FIDM

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  • 1 Eigen flashcards lecture 1, 2, 3

  • Indirect costs are related to a particular cost object but cannot be traced to it because
    - cost element is shared among cost objects (common costs)
    - physically impossible to trace
    - not cost effective to trace
  • Criticism traditional allocation method
    - Assumes all overhead is volume related
    - Organization-wide or departmental rates all related to single activity measure
    - Departmental focus, not process focus
    - Focus on costs incurred, not cause of costs
  • Absorbed overhead/applied overhead
    is the amount of overhead applied to work-in-process during the period using the predetermined overhead rate and the actual amount of inputs used
  • Under-absorbed overhead/under-recovery of
    When actual overhead > absorbed overhead
  • Over-absorbed overhead/over-recovery of overhead
    Actual overhead < absorbed overhead
  • Cost allocations act as
    an internal tax system
  • If AC < MC
    Allocated costs are less than the opportunity costs incurred
  • If AC is at minimum
    AC = MC
  • MC is above AC when
    AC is increasing
  • MC is below AC when
    AC is decreasing
  • Joint costing: Physical measurement method
    Determine weighing of joint cost allocated accordingly with production in kg
  • Joint costing: Sales value at split-off method
    Determine weighing of joint cost allocated accordingly with sales value
  • NRV is
    the difference between the selling price and costs that would be incurred after the split-off point
  • Conversion costs
    is Labour + Overhead
  • Absorption costing
    Allocate all manufacturing costs (full costs) into product costs.
    Operating income = sales x (price - var. costs) - fixed OH costs
  • Variable costing (=direct costing/marginal costing)
    Excludes fixed costs from product costs and writes them off in the year that the costs are incurred.
    Operating income = sales x (price - full costs) + (actual production - normal production) x fixed OH rate
  • Dysfunctional effect under absorption costing:
    - Managers can defer recognition of fixed manufacturing costs by building ending inventory
    - Incentive to over-produce
  • For which type of costing does level of sales determine break-even point
    Variable costing
  • For which type of costing do both levels of sales and production determine break-even point
    Absorption costing
  • Activity based costing (ABC)
    - Allocation of indirect costs based on causal activities
    - Attempts to identify 'direct link' between cost and cost object
    - Results in better (more accurate) allocation
  • Activity cost drivers consist of
    Transactions and duration drivers
  • Examples unit-level activities
    Direct materials and labour, energy costs, expenses consumed in proportion to machine processing time
  • Examples batch-related activities
    set-ups, purchase ordering and first-item inspection activities
  • Examples facility-sustaining/business-sustaining activities
    Plant management, property costs, salaries of general administrative staff
  • Aggregation error
    Occurs when a cost system pools dissimilar resources together in the same pool. 
    This induces errors because the system design asserts similarity in consumption patterns for dissimilar resources
  • Specification error
    Occurs when an incorrect cost driver is chosen. 
    e.g. all labor-related overhead might be allocated using labor hours, even though some of these costs might vary with labor costs (not hours) and FTE counts
  • Measurement error
    can occur both when the costs to be allocated are calculated and/or when driver quantities are measured incorreclty
  • Two parameters required in TDABC method
    The number of time units (e.g. minutes) consumed by the activities related to the cost object
    The capacity cost rate per time unit
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Laatst toegevoegde flashcards

Mix variance
Arises when the mis of inputs used differs from the predetermined mix of inputs included in the calculation of a standard cost of an operation
Yield variance
Arises because there is a difference between the standard output for a given level of inputs and the actual output attained
Overhead variance analysis formulas:
- Variable: AVOH - (VOHR x AV)
- Fixed: AFOH - FOH
- Variable: VOHR x (AV - SV)
- Fixed: no 
- Variable: no
- Fixed: FOHR x (SV - BV)
pitfalls volume variance
- management may have maintained some extra capacity to meet uncertain demand increases that are important to satisfy customer demands.
- production volume variance focuses only on costs. It does not measure the opportunity cost of unused capacity.
- measuring and rewarding performance using the production volume variance induces managers to build inventories.
Volume variance
arises when actual volume differs from the denominator-level used to calculate the budgeted fixed OH rate.
Production volume variance is an estimation of unused or over-used capacity of the facility.
Spending variance
measures the difference between how much overhead was actually incurred versus how much overhead should have been incurred for the actual volume worked.
Spending variance is a ‘catchall’ variance that captures everything not explained by the efficiency and volume variances
Advantages flexible budgets
- Shows revenues and expenses that should have occurred at the actual level of activity
- May be prepared for any activity level in the relevant range
- Reveal variances due to good cost control or lack of cost control
- Improve performance evaluation
Difference between static budget and flexible budget
The output level upon which the budget is based
Flexible budget
Is developed using budgeted revenues or cost amounts based on the level of output actually achieved in the budget period
Static budget variance
The difference between an actual result and a budgeted amount in the static budget