Samenvatting Sensation & Perception

ISBN-13 9781605358758
338 Flashcards en notities
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Dit is de samenvatting van het boek "Sensation & Perception". De auteur(s) van het boek is/zijn Jeremy M Wolfe. Het ISBN van dit boek is 9781605358758. Deze samenvatting is geschreven door studenten die effectief studeren met de studietool van Study Smart With Chris.

Samenvatting - Sensation & Perception

  • 1 Introduction

  • Define sensation
    The ability to detect a stimulus and, perhaps, to turn that detection into a private experience
  • Define perception
    The act of giving meaning to a detected sensation
  • Define  Qualia
    In reference to philosophy, private conscious experience of sensation or perception.
  • Define dualisme
    The idea that the mind has an existence separate from the material world of the body
  • Define  materialism
    The idea that the only thing that exists is matter, ad that all things, including the mind and consciousness, are the results of interaction between bits and matter
  • Define  panpsychism
    The idea that the mind exists as a property of all matter - that is, that all matter has consciousness.
  • Define psychophysics
    The science of defining quantitative relationships between physical and psychological (subjective, perceptual) events.
  • Define two-point touch threshold
    The minimum distance at which two stimuli (e.g., two simultaneous touches) are just perceptible as separate.
  • Define just noticeable difference (JND) or Difference threshold
    The smallest detectable difference between two stimuli, or the minimum change in a stimulus that enables it to be correctly judged as different from a reference stimulus.
  • Define Weber fraction
    The constant of proportionality in Weber’s law.
  • Define Weber's law
    The principle describing the relationship between stimulus and resulting sensation that says the just noticeable difference (JND) is a constant fraction of the comparison stimulus.
  • Define Fechner's law
    A principle describing the relationship between stimulus and resulting sensation that says the magnitude of subjective sensation increases proportionally to the logarithm of the stimulus intensity.
  • Define absolute threshold
    The minimum amount of stimulation necessary for a person to detect a stimulus 50% of the time.
  • Define method of constant stimuli
    A psychophysical method in which many stimuli, ranging from rarely to almost always perceivable (or rarely to almost always perceivably different from a reference stimulus), are presented one at a time. Participants respond to each presentation: “yes/no,” “same/different,” and so on.
  • Define method of limits
    A psychophysical method in which the particular dimension of a stimulus, or the difference between two stimuli, is varied incrementally until the participant responds differently.
  • Define method of adjustment
    A method of limits in which the participant controls the change in the stimulus.
  • Define magnitude of estimation
    A psychophysical method in which the participant assigns values according to perceived magnitudes of the stimuli.
  • Define steven's power law
    A principle describing the relationship between stimulus and resulting sensation that says the magnitude of subjective sensation is proportional to the stimulus magnitude raised to an exponent.
  • Define cross-modality matching
    The ability to match the intensities of sensations that come from different sensory modalities. This ability allows insight into sensory differences. For example, a listener might adjust the brightness of a light until it matches the loudness of a tone.
  • Define supertaster
    An individual who experiences the most intense taste sensations. Some stimuli are dramatically more intense for supertasters than for medium tasters or nontasters. Supertasters also tend to experience more intense oral burn and oral touch sensations. A variety of factors may contribute to this heightened perception, among the most important is the density of fungiform papillae.
  • Define signal detection theory
    A psychophysical theory that quantifies the response of an observer to the presentation of a signal in the presence of noise. Measures obtained from a series of presentations are sensitivity (d′) and criterion of the observer.
  • Define criterion
    In reference to signal detection theory, an internal threshold that is set by the observer. If the internal response is above criterion, the observer gives one response (e.g., “yes, I hear that”). Below criterion, the observer gives another response (e.g., “no, I hear nothing”).
  • Define sensitivity
    In reference to signal detection theory, a value that defines the ease with which an observer can tell the difference between the presence and absence of a stimulus or the difference between Stimulus 1 and Stimulus 2.
  • Define receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve
    In reference to studies of signal detection, the graphical plot of the hit rate as a function of the false-alarm rate. If these are the same, points fall on the diagonal, indicating that the observer cannot tell the difference between the presence and absence of the signal. As the observer’s sensitivity increases, the curve bows upward toward the upper left corner. That point represents a perfect ability to distinguish signal from noise (100% hits, 0% false alarms).
  • Define sine wave
    A simple, smoothly changing oscillation that repeats across space. Higher-frequency sine waves have more oscillations, and lower frequencies have fewer oscillations, over a given distance. 1. In reference to hearing, a waveform for which variation as a function of time is a sine function. Also called pure tone. 2. In reference to vision, a pattern for which variation in a property like brightness or color as a function of space is a sine function.
  • Define wavelength
    The distance required for one full cycle of oscillation for a sine wave.
  • Define period
    In reference to hearing, the time required for a full wavelength of an acoustic sine wave to pass by a point in space.
  • Define phase
    1. A fraction of the cycle of the sine wave described in degrees (0° to 360°) or radians (0π to 2π). In reference to hearing, phase can be used to describe fractions of a period that relate to time. 2. The relative position of a grating.
  • Define Fourier analysis
    A mathematical procedure by which any signal can be separated into component sine waves at different frequencies. Combining these sine waves will reproduce the original signal.
  • Define spatial frequency
    The number of cycles of a grating (e.g., changes in light and dark) per unit of visual angle (usually specified in cycles per degree).
  • Define cycles per degree
    The number of pairs of light and dark bars (cycles of a grating) per degree of visual angle.
  • Define doctrine of specific nerve energies
    A doctrine, formulated by Johannes Müller, stating that the nature of a sensation depends on which sensory fibers are stimulated, rather than how they are stimulated.
  • Define cranial nerves
    Twelve pairs of nerves (one for each side of the body) that originate in the brain stem and reach sense organs and muscles through openings in the skull.
  • Define olfactory (I) nerves
    The first pair of cranial nerves. The axons of the olfactory sensory neurons bundle together after passing through the cribriform plate to form the olfactory nerve, which conducts impulses from the olfactory epithelia in the nose to the olfactory bulb.
  • Define positron emission tomography (PET)
    An imaging technology that enables us to define locations in the brain where neurons are especially active by measuring the metabolism of brain cells using safe radioactive isotopes.
  • Define blood oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) signal
    The ratio of oxygenated to deoxygenated hemoglobin that permits the localization of brain neurons that are most involved in a task.
  • Define functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
    A variant of magnetic resonance imaging that makes it possible to measure localized patterns of activity in the brain. Activated neurons provoke increased blood flow, which can be quantified by measuring changes in the response of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood to strong magnetic fields.
  • Define magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
    An imaging technology that uses the responses of atoms to strong magnetic fields to form images of structures like the brain. The method can be adapted to measure activity in the brain, as well (see functional magnetic resonance imaging).
  • Define computed tomography (CT)
    An imaging technology that uses X-rays to create images of slices through volumes of material (e.g., the human body).
  • Define magnetoencephalography (MEG)
    A technique, similar to electroencephalography, that measures changes in magnetic activity across populations of many neurons in the brain.
  • Define event-related potential (ERP)
    A measure of electrical activity from a subpopulation of neurons in response to particular stimuli that requires averaging many EEG recordings.
  • Define electroencephalography (EEG)
    A technique that, using many electrodes on the scalp, measures electrical activity from populations of many neurons in the brain.
  • Define neuroimaging
    A set of methods that generate images of the structure and/or function of the brain. In many cases, these methods allow us to examine the brain in living, behaving humans.
  • Define neurotransmitter
    A chemical substance used in neuronal communication at synapses.
  • Define synapse
    The junction between neurons that permits information transfer.
  • Define vitalism
    The idea that there is a force in life that is distinct from physical entities.
  • Define polysensory
    Referring to blending multiple sensory systems
  • Define abducens (VI) nerves
    The sixth pair of cranial nerves, which innervate the lateral rectus muscle of the eyeballs.

  • Define trochlear (IV) nerves
    The fourth pair of cranial nerves, which innervate the superior oblique muscles of the eyeballs.
  • Define oculomotor (III) nerves
    The third pair of cranial nerves, which innervate all the extrinsic muscles of the eye except the lateral rectus and the superior oblique muscles, and which innervate the elevator muscle of the upper eyelid, the ciliary muscle, and the sphincter muscle of the pupil.
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inattentional blindness
A failure to notice—or at least to report—a stimulus that would be easily reportable if it were attended
change blindness
The failure to notice a change between two scenes. If the gist, or meaning, of the scene is not altered, quite large changes can pass unnoticed.
spatial layout
The description of the structure of a scene (e.g., enclosed, open, rough, smooth) without reference to the identity of specific objects in the scene.
ensemble statistics
The average and distribution of properties like orientation or color over a set of objects or over a region in a scene.
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
a common childhood disorder that can continue into adulthood. Symptoms include difficulty focusing attention as well as problems controlling behavior.
Referring to the same side of the body (or brain).
In visual attention, the inability to perceive a stimulus to one side of the point of fixation (e.g., to the right) in the presence of another stimulus, typically in a comparable position in the other visual field (e.g., on the left side).
contralesional field
The visual field on the side opposite a brain lesion. For example, points to the left of fixation are contralesional to damage in the right hemisphere of the brain.
As a neurological symptom, in visual attention: (1) The inability to attend or respond to stimuli in the contralesional visual field (typically, the left field after right parietal damage). (2) Ignoring half of the body or half of an object.
parietal lobe
In each cerebral hemisphere, a lobe that lies toward the top of the brain between the frontal and occipital lobes.