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Samenvatting - The development of the nation state : France 1498-1610
1.1 Strength of renaissance kingship under Francis I (change)
What was the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges of 1438?
An agreement between the King and the Pope allowing cathedral chapters to elect bishops and abbots independently. This governed the relationship between Church and state.
What is Gallicanism?
The relationship between Rome and the French Church.
The French clerical liberties were proudly guarded, yet Francis I had effectively taken control of the clergy at the beginning of the sixteenth century.
How far did the Concordat of Bologna (1516) increase the power of the Crown?
far - it gave Francis unprecedented control over the French Church as he was able to legally nominate candidates directly for vacant bishoprics and to fill vacancies in abbeys and monasteries.
- Parlements were virtually forced to agree to the concordat despite opposing royal authority. Through threats and intimidation, Francis exerted his power upon the parlement of Paris.
limited - monarchical control over appointments had been steadily growing over the previous century = the concordat merely officialised the process.
What was the unfortunate impact of the Concordat of Bologna (1516)? Did this change with Henry II
Francis used his powers as a means of patronage, rewarding leading nobles with clerical positions. e.g. Of the 129 men appointed by Francis nearly 100 were related to leading aristocratic families = few had any theological training
= the extension in royal authority over the Church contributed to the declining standards of the French Church
Henry II continued the practice of his father in appointing Italians to leading positions in the Church as a source of political patronage in order to advance the French position in Italy. = ABSENTEEISM, PLURALISM, SIMONY AND NEPOTISM occurred
= unsurprising that calls for reforms were heard in the early sixteenth century
Who were the most significant members in the Circle of Meaux? What happened in 1523?
Lefevre and Briconnet. In 1523, Lefevre published a French translation of the Gospels and the entire New Testament. Also in 1523, Briconnet is charged with heresy.
How radical was the Circle of Meaux?
They were no threat to the crown - men such as Lefevre were trying to reinvigorate Catholicism.
What happened in 1525 concerning the Circle of Meaux?
Royal protection preserved the circle until 1525 when Francis was held captive after the French defeat in Pavia, leaving his mother in charge. The Sorbonne dissolved the circle and Lefevre was forced to flee to Strasbourg. Briconnet stood trial but was saved by the return of Francis in 1526.
What differed between Francis I and the Sorbonne in terms of religious policy?
Their outlook on what was considered heresy. Francis was not a Protestant sympathiser or even a convinced evangelical, but he was not allowing the Sorbonne to dictate religious policy as the Circle of Meaux enlightened him. He let Lefevre tutor the royal children.
What statue was damaged in 1528 and by who?
the Virgin Mary was deliberately damaged by radical iconoclasts in Paris. - the number of Protestants in France were low but sporadic events kept authorities on guard.
What group of people became more extreme during the 1520s and what tension did this create?
Protestant sympathisers became more extreme but Francis still sought to protect the intellectual reform movement of the Humanists. This meant the tensions between the Sorbonne, the parlement of Paris and Francis grew.
Who was Louis de Berquin and why was he proved guilty in his trial in 1528?
He was an original member in the Circle of Meaux. He stood trial before a jury which ought to have been sympathetic towards him as it was appointed by the Pope under orders from Francis I. However, the King was out of Paris so the Sorbonne bullied Clement VII into removing the commissioners and a new, more conservative group was appointed. Berquin was burned in 1529.
Who was Nicholas Cop and why was he forced to flee to Switzerland?
He criticised the persecution of evangelicals and endorsed the preaching of the gospel. The Sorbonne linked Cop's sermon to Lefevre and Luther, and so he fled for his life to Switzerland.
How did Francis I show his control over religious policy regarding Nicholas Cop?
He ordered the Bishop of Paris to stop the persecution against Cop.
What and when was the Affair of the Placards and what did they attack?
October 1534 - They were sacramentarian denunciation of the Eucharist - they were violently offensive to the Catholic Mass and stated that priests were antichrists and that transubstantiation was the doctrine of the devils.
What was the result of the Affair of the Placards (1534)? How long did the prosecution last?
It pushed the King to take harsher action towards heresy. A period of repression driven by the Sorbonne and backed by Francis. 24 executions took place as well as the passing of numerous edicts encouraging citizens to inform upon heretics in the community. Informers would receive one-quarter of their victim's property and possessions.
Massive religious processions were staged in Paris to demonstrate the orthodoxy and commitment of the Most Christian King.
The prosecution lasted until July 1535 when FI introduced the Edict of Coucy = released religious prisoners and offered amnesty to exiles if they promised to admit their errors within 6 months = shows he still wished to pursue a middle line although, now he is more aware of radical movements which threated to undermine his rule.
What did the Affair of the Placards do to Francis's view on heresy?
They did not necessarily harden his views as he had never tolerated such doctrine but it did move him to act against radicals and clarified the devision between reform and heresy.
What was Protestantism seen as after the Affair fo the Placards 1534?
The religion of the rebels and a threat to national order
What meant that Protestants and evangelicals could not make a big impact on France?
They were a minority
When was the Truce of Nice and what was it?
1538 - it freed Francis from the need to court German princes + he recognised that greater powers over heresy were needed in Parlements in order to isolate Protestants.
When was the Edict of Fontainebleau and what was it?
1540 - gave the parlement overall control of heresy jurisdiction = shows that Protestantism was making headway in France.
In terms of domestic polices, what shows that Francis was a strong monarch?
-his ability to centralise government and lay the foundations for absolutism
-ability to collect taxation
- no Estates Generals = only in 1527 did he call an Assembly of Notables which compromised leading clerics, nobles and parlementaries - this acted as an extension of the King's council and to a great extent was controlled by the King himself.
What revolts did occur?
- 1542 western France in response to the KIng's attempt to reform the gabelle through the Edict of Chatellerault
In 1542 how was the King's absence of fighting Charles V taken advantage of? How did Francis stop this?
Over 10,000 men forced the royal commissioners out of the localities. The revolt was stopped by the King's personal intervention (aspect of strong monarchy) in La Rouchelle to pass judgement on the rebels.
How was Francis I's relationship with the nobility?
Few noble revolts (although most of them were fighting in the italian wars). The old nobility remained loyal to the crown and helped to implement royal policy on the localities. EXCEPTION = Charles of Bourbon = even in periods of strong monarchy the nobility remained a potential threat.
What happened in the Bourbon Rebellion (1523)?
- Francis laid claim on Bourbon's land
- COB looked abroad for support = alliance with Charles V and Henry VIII
- Bourbon defeated (the most powerful nobleman in France)
What opposition occurred regarding the Ordinance of Villers-Cotterets (1539)?
The parlement of Rouen refused to ratify it so Francis closed it doen until 1541 when he was satisfied with the loyalty of its members. The Ordinance was passed in 1540.
What was Francis I's main aim?
Advance his own authority - any other developments were a by-product of his central aim. Promoting nationhood was not his primary intention.
What developments had Francis made to forging a nation state? *think Burgundy...*
He had promoted nation state, but France was still some way off territorial, legal and linguistic unity. ALTHOUGH in 1526, Burgundy pledged their loyalty to the French crown in the wake of Francis I's capture in Pavia = Francis had created a sense of belonging.
How was government becoming increasingly centralised?
Through the use of provincial governors, baillis and maitres des requetes = royal control over provinces was increasing.
What were the limitations of royal authority?
- The parlements still had to ratify legislation
- Provincial estates had to grant subsidies
- Tax collection was granted by provincial estates
- The King could not erode local traditions and priviledges
Was Francis absolute?
No - but he did bring about a greater sense of unity and centralisation to government.
What similarities can be seen between Louis XII and Francis I?
- Renaissance monarchs who were interested in good government (Francis was more extravagant in terms of patronage, court life and expenditure)
- The rationale for war remained the same (though the scale and expense of war increased under FI)
- Both looked to u=increase royal revenue + make government more efficient
- Both benefited from a period of long, stable rule and economic prosperity
- Neither faced much noble faction
What difference can be said about Louis XII and Francis I?
Louis was more willing to rule with the advice of the parlements.
What is important to note regarding the growth of religious content during Francis I's reign?
For the first time we see devisions = Catholic unity was under threat.
What came at the expense of extending royal authority?
Representative institutions and the power of the nobility.
Why was 1562 a turning point in regards to monarchical authority?
FWOR - local privilege and parochialism took hold.
What evidence suggests attempts to enhance royal authority under FI and LXII?
New parlements in Provence & Rouen (LXII & FI)
Introduction of royal offers in the provinces e.g. gens de finances (LXII)
What evidence shows FI and HII forcing representative institutions into obedience?
1538 - FI ignores the grievances of local estates in Albi and collects his subsidy
HII - collects the taillon from estates in Normandy whilst billeting troops there
What 2 factors did the authority of the monarch depend on?
His personal character & longevity of his rule
What does the coronation image symbolise? What title was given to the King of France?
It emphasised the unique relationship between the French monarchy and the Catholic Church. The French King had the papal endorsement of 'rex christianissimus' meaning the Most Christian King.
What does the Ordinance of Blois (1499) and Ordinance of Lyons (1510) say about his Louis XII?
He had a willingness to reform and in particular to define clearly the powers of regional officials and make them accountable to the crown.
What year does Louis XII appoint 8 gens de finances?
When and what did Claude de Seyssel write? What does it show?
A political treatise called The Monarchy of France (1515) - even Seyssell shows that monarchs were strong but not absolute as they had to answer to localities
Who was present at the Assembly of Notables in 1527? What does this show?
Nobles - FI has to re-establish his authority over the nobles after he was captured at Pavia = shows how important it is to have more power than the nobles.
Why were the Barme and Baillet important?
The started to codify the legal system under LXII
How did Francis regard Humanism?
An enlightened means of improving Catholicism - context very different from the growth of Calvinism.
What aspects of FI's reign saw continuity from LXII's reign and what saw change?
- strong personal kingship
- fights in Italy
- bureaucracy and administration
- nation state = provinces becoming part of France
- beginning of religious disunity - he unwittingly encourages radical ideas = by his death Calvinism is already making headway
- eroding provincialism
What statistics show that FI made greater headway towards centralisation than LXII? How does this compare with HII?
Centralisation had only marginally increased under LXII as only 8 royal officials were implemented under his gens de finances whereas FI made great headway with one royal official every 45km by 1547 whereas there had only been 1 every 60km in 1515. Yet HII made greater headway, making a 25% increase on his FI's tax - although arguably this would not have been possible without FI's initial progress.
Laatst toegevoegde flashcards
Material gain - Calvinism offered them political autonomy, taxes & rents, alliances with sovereign figure heads and control over the church = many Calvinist nobles were not truly dedicated to the reformed faith.
La Rouchelle and Nantes - this was outwith French control
A poor relief system implemented by municipal authorities NOT THE KING (could argue that the King did not care about the Third estate)
Short term benefits but long term drain
Social implications = it promotes social mobility at the expense of entrepreneurialism
- Loans from foreign bankers
- HII's seige presidal
- Rentes (FI)
- Church = selling bishoprics (FI)
- HII's - grand parti de lyons
- fighting wars
- courts and buildings = projecting the image of power
Destruction of crops and livestock - requisition of grain
- billeting led to demographic stagnation, popular unrest as well as a decrease in agricultural yield (e.g. 75% in Burgundy), grain prices rise 35% = "Subsistence Crises" and "Price Revolution"
1. Impact of war
2. Change and continuity regarding monarchical power
3. Circumstance and outlook on commerce/ agriculture
- they are open to violence
- monarchs should be elective
The political climate/ feeling of France