Samenvatting The Economics of Innovation An Introduction

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ISBN-10 1781007748 ISBN-13 9781781007747
208 Flashcards en notities
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Dit is de samenvatting van het boek "The Economics of Innovation An Introduction". De auteur(s) van het boek is/zijn G M P Swann. Het ISBN van dit boek is 9781781007747 of 1781007748. Deze samenvatting is geschreven door studenten die effectief studeren met de studietool van Study Smart With Chris.

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Samenvatting - The Economics of Innovation An Introduction

  • 3.1 main links in the linear model

  • Give the stages of the linear model
    Research&creativity>> invention>>design and development>> innovation
  • Describe innovation
    The succesfull exploitation of new ideas
  • What is the difference between innovation and invention
    Invention is about generation oc new ideas and innovation is the commercial application of invention
  • Describe design
    Design adds the extra dimension to the product
  • What is the difference between innovation and techonological change
    Innovation is wider than only technical
  • 3.2 different forms of innovation

  • Describe pure process innovation
    It simply changes the way in which a product is made, without changing the product itself
  • Describe a pure product innovation
    It creates a new or improved product for sale without any change in the production process
  • Describe innovative pricing
    It is a new way of charging for a product or service. It is commonly used by mobile Phone operators
  • Describe incremental innovation
    It describes the steady stream of improvements to a particular product or process which do not change the character of that product in any fundamental way
  • Describe radical innovation
    It describes improvements that fundamentally alter the character of a product or process
  • Describe architectual innovation
    It refers to a fundamental change in the way that certain components are pieced together to make a system while the basic components themselves little changed
  • 3.3 protetecting invention

  • What are two ways to protect your innovation
    Patent and keep it secret
  • How can you protect intelectual property
    Compexity
  • 3.4 two different theories of creativity

  • What are the two theories of creativity
    Autonomy: in this state the creative mind neither knows or cares what her critics may say
    combinatorial theory: creativity calls for an ability to bring together habitually incompatible ideas and combine them in a way that gives deep new insights
  • 3.5 two different views of the consumer

  • Describe the views of the consumer
    Passive consumer: a creature of habit, who likes the familiar and does not like change. Resistant to any form of innovation

    active consumer: is an explorer what she can do with new products, even if she doesnt really need them  

    conventional consumer: she has fixed, pre-determined needs and is only intrested in innovation to the extent that process innovations reduce prices
  • 3.6 measuring innovation

  • What are ways to measure innovation
    Describe innovation in detail
    count innovation
    questionare of innovative companies
    count number of patents issued
    measure companies R&D expenditures
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 while Goliaths have an inherent tendency to react to cost pressures by lowering the sustainability quality of their offerings.  However, we see increasing evidence for a next stage of development on both paths. As for “Emerging Davids”, firms such as Wholefoods, Green Mountain Energy, Vestas or Ben&Jerry's have found ways to scale up their sustainable innovations without unduly compromising on their sustainability ambitions.
 while Goliaths have an inherent tendency to react to cost pressures by lowering the sustainability quality of their offerings.  However, we see increasing evidence for a next stage of development on both paths. As for “Emerging Davids”, firms such as Wholefoods, Green Mountain Energy, Vestas or Ben&Jerry's have found ways to scale up their sustainable innovations without unduly compromising on their sustainability ambitions.
On the other hand, in the “Greening Goliaths” camp, there are examples of large firms such as Walmart, GE, Kraftor Toyota who have taken on the challenge of building sustainability into their mainstream business. Arguably, the success of emerging Davids, which can also be seen as a potential competitive threat, has been instrumental for some of these Goliaths to embark on the level of sustainable entrepreneurship that they did. Therefore, we would argue that the sustainable transformation of industries is not going to be brought about by either Davids or Goliaths alone, but instead that their interaction is essential.
On the other hand, in the “Greening Goliaths” camp, there are examples of large firms such as Walmart, GE, Kraftor Toyota who have taken on the challenge of building sustainability into their mainstream business. Arguably, the success of emerging Davids, which can also be seen as a potential competitive threat, has been instrumental for some of these Goliaths to embark on the level of sustainable entrepreneurship that they did. Therefore, we would argue that the sustainable transformation of industries is not going to be brought about by either Davids or Goliaths alone, but instead that their interaction is essential.
Describe pure exploration
New techonology to new customer
Describe pure exploitation
Competence in existing firm for both technology and customer
 Our analysis has resulted in a dynamic view of industry transformation, where the initial phase is characterized by
sustainability initiatives of idealistic “Davids”. In a second phase,somepioneering“Goliaths”,for example retailers with a higher quality positioning, mimic some of the David in itiatives and try to bring them into their mainstream distribution channels. Inisolation, none of these two developments would necessarily lead to sustainable transformation of mainstream markets, because as we have argued above Davids tend to get stuck in their highquality,
This article has aimed at advancing the academic discussion on sustainable entrepreneurship by
(i) highlighting the differential roles of “Davids” and “Goliaths” in the sustainable transformation of industries, (ii) discussing the specific opportunities and challenges of “Emerging Davids” and “Greening Goliaths” as pathways towards sustainable development, and
(iii) exploring the interaction of entrepreneurial initiatives in small and large companies in bringing about this development.
Risk of cannibalising their product for goliaths if
they make a product that is just better than the current.
To conclude, this cross-sector, cross-country study of the SE aimed to provide a multifaceted account that includes the perspectives and actions of the different stakeholders in theSE as
co-evolving within a large and constantly moving picture
Finally, the third discovery reveals that whether acting locally and addressing theneeds of the community leads to legitimation, and market penetration largely depends on the
approach of the national government regarding the regulation of the new service or product.
When governments play a more proactive role (e.g., in the UK), politically active industry
associations and lobbying various higher institutional actors (e.g., ministers) offer additional
opportunities to gain legitimacy and influence regulation.
our second discovery is that incountries with higher degrees of institutionalization, the
legitimacy and commercial success