Samenvatting Understanding Motivation and Emotion, 6th Edition

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ISBN-10 1118804708 ISBN-13 9781118804704
122 Flashcards en notities
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Dit is de samenvatting van het boek "Understanding Motivation and Emotion, 6th Edition". De auteur(s) van het boek is/zijn Johnmarshall Reeve. Het ISBN van dit boek is 9781118804704 of 1118804708. Deze samenvatting is geschreven door studenten die effectief studeren met de studietool van Study Smart With Chris.

Samenvatting - Understanding Motivation and Emotion, 6th Edition

  • 1 Introduction

  • Once formed, theories generate predictions (i.e., hypotheses) about where a motivational state comes from, what it leads to (e.g., behavioral change), and how, when, and under what conditions it might change.
  • Why does behavior vary in its intensity?
    •  a person can be actively engaged at one time, yet that same person can be passive and listless at another time
    • Within the individual, motivation varies. When motivation varies, behavior also varies.
  • Subject matter
    • The study of motivation concerns those internal processes that give behavior its energy, direction, and persistence.
      • Energy= behavior has strength
      • Direction = behavior had purpose
      • Persistence = behavoir has endurance 
    • External events and social contexts are important too, because they act as antecedents to motives. 
  • Motives
    • External events and social contexts are important too, because they act as antecedents to motives. 
      • Needs
      • Cognitions, mental events 
      • Emotions
  • Five ways that you can know motivation when you see it
    Behavior, engagement, psychophysiology, brain activations and self-report
  • Behavior effort
    Persistence, latency, choice, probability of response,
    facial expressions and bodily gestures
  • Effort
    Exertion put forth during a task. Percentage of total capacity used.
  • Persistance
    Time between when a behavior first starts until it ends
  • Latency
    Duration of time a person waits to get started on a task upon first being given an oppurtunity to do so
  • Choice
    When presented with two or more courses of action, preferring one course of action over the other
  • Probability of response
    Number of occasions that the person enacts a particular goal-directed response given the total number of oppurtunities to do so.
  • Facial expressions
    Facial movements
  • Bodily gestures
    Bodily gestures, learning forward, changing posture
  • Engagement refers to
    How actively involved a person is in a task
  •  engagement is a multidimensional construct that consists of the four distinct
    1. Behavior 
    2. Emotion 
    3. Cognition 
    4. Agency 
  • Behavior = how effortfully
    Emotional = presence of positive emotions during task 
    Cognitive = how strategically the person attempts to process information  
    Agentic = extent off proactive and constructive contribution
  • Psychophysiology
    The process by which psychological states produce downstream changes in one's physiology
  • Hormonal activity
    Chemicals in saliva or blood, such as cortisol (stress) or catecholamines
  • Cardiovascular activity
     Contraction and relaxation of the heart and blood vessels
  • Ocular activity
    Eye behavior
  • Electrodermal activity
    Electrical changes on the surface of the skin
  • Sketetal activity
    Activity of the musculature, as with facial expressions (specific emotion), bodily gestures, or shifting one’s weight from side to side during a boring hallway conversation (desire to leave).
  • Self-report 
     what people say their motives are sometimes are not what people’s behavior, engagement, psychophysiology, and brain activations suggest their motives are.
  • Understanding motivation
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Testosterone
High competition, status-seeking, and sexual motivation.
Oxytocin
Bonding hormone. 'tend and befriend stess response'. Oxytocin increases the salience or attention-getting qualities of socialinterpersonal cues, such as emotion recognition and empathy.
Hormoon; cortisol
Stress hormone. Activation occurs during social-evaluative threats, conflict and being interpersonally controlled. Deactivation occurs during social support. 
Cortisol mobilizes attention and energy.
The striatum consists of
The nucleus accumbens, caudate nucleus and putamen.
Anterior cingulate cortex
Monitors motivational conflicts. Resolves conflicts by recruiting other cortical brain structures for executive or cognitive control over basic urges and emotions.
Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
Evaluates the learned emotional value of environmental events and possible courses of action. Responsible for control over urges and risks during the pursuit of long-term goals. The idea is that we have a great deal of learned emotional value and meaning for the objects and events around us, and these emotional memories are largely stored in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
Ventromedial prefrontal cortex
Evaluates the unlearned emotional value of basic sensory rewards and internal bodily states. Responsible for emotional control.
Orbitofrontal cortex
Stores and processes reward-related value of environmental objects and events to formulate preferences and make choices between options.
Prefrontal cortex
Making plans, setting goals, formulating intentions. Right hemispheric activity is associated with negative affect and “no-go” avoidance motivation, while left hemispheric activity is associated with positive affect and “go” approach motivation.
Insular cortex (insula)
Monitors bodily states to produce gut-felt feelings. Processes feelings associated with empathy, intrinsic motivation, risk, uncertainty, pain, and personal agency. 
consist off 2 parts: anterior and posterior. 
.The posterior insula receives, monitors, and becomes aware of changes in bodily states such as changes in heart rate. 
The anterior insula monitors, evaluates, and consciously represents (becomes aware of) the subjective feelings that arise from these changes in bodily states.